Task 10. Make the written translation into Russian ( 2,200 characters)
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To the ancients, the processes of image formation were full of mystery. Indeed, for a long time there was a great discussion as to whether, in vision, something moved from the object to the eye or whether something reached out from the eye to the object. By the beginning of the 17th century, however, it was known that rays of light travel in straight lines, and in 1604 Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer, published a book on optics in which he postulated that an extended object could be regarded as a multitude of separate points, each point emitting rays of light in all directions. Some of these rays would enter a lens, by which they would be bent around and made to converge to a point, the «image» of the object point whence the rays originated. The lens of the eye was not different from other lenses, and it formed an image of external objects on the retina, producing the sensation of vision. There are two main types of image to be considered: real and virtual. A real image is formed outside the system, where the emerging rays actually cross; such an image can be caught on a screen or piece of film and is the kind of image formed by a slide projector or in a camera. A virtual image, on the other hand, is formed inside an instrument at the point where diverging rays would cross if they were extended backward into the instrument. Such an image is formed in a microscope or telescope and can be seen by looking into the eyepiece.

Optics had progressed rapidly by the early years of the 19th century. Lenses of moderately good quality were being made for telescopes and microscopes, and in 1841 the great mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss published his classical book on geometrical optics. In it he expounded the concept of the focal length and cardinal points of a lens system and developed formulas for calculating the position and size of the image formed by a lens of given focal length. Between 1852 and 1856 Gauss’s theory was extended to the calculation of the five principal aberrations of a lens, thus laying the foundation for the formal procedures of lens design that were used for the next 100 years. Since about 1960, however, lens design has been almost entirely computerized, and the old methods of designing lenses by hand on a desk calculator are rapidly disappearing.

By the end of the 19th century numerous other workers had entered the field of geometrical optics, notably an English physicist, Lord Rayleigh, and a German physicist, Ernst Karl Abbe. Since 1940 there has been a great resurgence in optics on the basis of information and communication theory, which is treated at length below.



UNIT 3. A GLIMPSE OF MODERN PHYSICS

QUANTUM MECHANICS

If quantum mechanics hasn't profoundly shocked you,

 you haven't understood it yet».

Niels Bohr [5]

Vocabulary

accompany ( V ) – сопровождать advanced ( Adj ) – передовой, прогрессивный, продвинутый align ( V ) – выравнивать, выстраивать в линию amplify light – усилить свет angular momentum – кинетический момент, момент количества движения, момент импульса beam (syn. ray) (N) – луч bind (bound) (V) – связывать blade ( N ) – лопасть, крыло branch out (V) – разветвляться collaborator (N) – соавтор defence ( N ) – защита, оборона depart from ( V ) – отклоняться, отходить, отказываться derive ( V ) – выводить, получать discrete ( Adj ) – дискретный display ( N ) – представление, шоу duality ( N ) – двойственность emerge ( V ) – появляться evaluate (V) – оценивать frequency ( N ) – частота identify ( V ) – опознавать, распознавать in a fraction of a second – в доле секунды in terms of – в терминах, на языке, на основе, исходя из liquid ( N ) – жидкость measure (V) – измерять, мерить melt ( V ) – плавить, растапливать, растворять microscopic scale – микроскопический масштаб nuclear missile – ядерная ракета precise ( Adj ) – точный, определённый probability amplitude – амплитуда вероятности quantize ( V ) – квантовать quantum ( N ) – квант, фотон realm (N) – область, сфера (царство науки) semiconductor ( N ) – полупроводник speculation ( N ) – размышление single-spot welding – одноточечная сварка speculative ( Adj ) – теоретический, созерцательный solid (Adj) – твердый steel (N) – сталь the string theory – теория струн surfacing ( N ) – выделка поверхности (чего-л.) target ( N ) – цель, мишень tissue ( N ) – ткань, материя treat (V) – лечить turbine ( N ) – турбина unify ( V ) – унифицировать vaporize ( V ) – испарять, испаряться, распылять

Task 1. Discuss with a partner.

1. Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above?

2. What does the quantum mechanics study?

Task 2. Scan the text «Quantum Mechanics» and find the names of the scientists who formulated the quantum theory.

Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM – also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory) is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. QM provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behaviour and interactions of energy and matter.

 In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviours are macroscopic and only emerge at extreme (i.e. very low or very high) energies or temperatures. The name quantum mechanics derives from the observation that some physical quantities can change only in discrete amounts (Latin quanta), and not in a continuous way. For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects.

The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. A mathematical function called the wave function provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle.

The earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century. At around the same time, the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein) first came to be widely accepted as the scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively. The early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli and their collaborators, and the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted. By 1930, quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. Quantum mechanics has since branched out into almost every aspect of  the 20th century physics and other disciplines, such as quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Much 19th century physics has been re-evaluated as the «classical limit» of quantum mechanics, and its more advanced developments in terms of the quantum field theory, the string theory, and speculative quantum gravity theories.                                                 (From www.bbc.co.uk )

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