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Еconomics can tell us the likely results of a sales tax. In addition, as a scientific discipline, economics provides extremely useful analytical tools and frameworks for understanding human behavior in the areas of getting and spending money, which occupies the majority of most people's waking hours.

Economics deals with fundamental, often life-or-death issues. That is why economics is important. Its challenge lies in its mysteries: We don't know when the next expansion or recession will come. We don't know if a federal tax cut will help the economy grow. We don't know which new technologies should be encouraged and which ones won't pan out (не преуспеют). And, tragically, we don't know how to overcome poverty, hunger, crime, and other evils rooted in economic reality. But economics is the branch of the social sciences most concerned with these matters, and it is the one that's well equipped to help us deal with them.

Economics provides a framework for understanding government policies, business developments, and consumer behavior here and abroad. It provides a rich context for making decisions in your business, professional, and financial life. The economy is to business as the ocean is to fish. It is the environment in which business operates. The more you know about this environment, the better you will function as a manager, analyst, and decision-maker.


Найдите эквиваленты и запишите их парами.

1 to provide a) the type of economic system
2 to satisfy b) the central authority
3 to determine c) goods and services
4 to rely d) the income
5 to obey e) people’s wants
6 to evaluate f) to work hard
7 to encourage g) on the same tools and methods

3. Прочитайте текст и выполните задание к нему.

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments' fiscal policies. He is particularly remembered for advocating interventionist government policy, by which the government would use fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions, depressions and booms. Economists consider him one of the main founders of modern theoretical macroeconomics. His popular expression "In the very long run, we are all dead" is still quoted.

Keynes enjoyed an elite early education at Eton. He entered King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, to study mathematics, but his interest in politics led him towards the field of economics, 1909 Keynes was ultimately a successful investor, building up a substantial private fortune. Keynes accepted a lectureship at Cambridge in economics funded personally by Alfred Marshall. Keynes' career lifted off as an adviser to the British finance department from 1915 – 1919 during World War the 1st.

His observations appeared in the highly influential book “The Economic Consequences of the Peace” in 1919, followed by “A Revision of the Treaty” in 1922. Keynes published his ‘Treatise on Probability’ in 1921, a notable contribution to the philosophical and mathematical underpinnings of probability theory. His magnum opus, the “General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money” challenged the economic paradigm when published in 1936. In this book Keynes put forward a theory based upon the notion of aggregate demand to explain variations in the overall level of economic activity, such as were observed in the Great Depression. The total amount of saving in a society is determined by the total income and thus, the economy could achieve an increase of total saving, even if the interest rates were lowered to increase the expenditures for investment. The book advocated activist economic policy by government to stimulate demand in times of high unemployment, for example by spending on public works. The book is often viewed as the foundation of modern macroeconomics.

 Соответствуют ли данные утверждения содержанию текста? Поставьте знак T , если утверждение верное и знак F, если неверное.

1. John Maynard Keynes is a father of Keynesian economics.

2. He became rich with the help of Stock Market Crash of 1929.

3. His book The Economic Consequences of the Peace was a notable contribution to the philosophical and mathematical underpinnings of probability theory.

4. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money was his magnum opus.

5. A Revision of the Treaty is often viewed as the foundation of modern macroeconomics.

6. Historians agree that Keynes influenced U.S. president Roosevelt's New Deal.

7. In the House of Lords Keynes sat on the Liberal benches.

8. Keynesian economics is a subfield of Microeconomics.

9. Keynes was a member of Bloomsbury group.

10. He studied at Oxford.

4. Подберите определения к словам левой колонки.

1. trade 2. disbursement 3. to maintain 4. elaborate 5. revenue 6. ledger 7. to interact 8. to elaborate 9. reference 10. to regard a) to make something stay the same b) a book that contains the financial records of a business c) to give more details or information about something d) the activities of buying and selling goods or services e) to communicate with one another and react to one another, often while performing an activity together f) very detailed and complicated g) an amount of money available for a particular purpose h) to think of something or someone in a particular way i) income from business activities or taxes j) a comment that mentions something or someone

5. Напишите короткое сообщение о своей будущей профессии по плану.

1. What is your future speciality?

2. Who helped you to choose your career?

3. Where do you study to obtain special knowledge?

4. What are your major subjects?

5. Do you have any practical skills in your future profession?

6. Where do you work (where are you going to work after graduation)?

7. What will be your responsibility and position after graduation?


Дата: 2018-12-21, просмотров: 583.