|1. A balance sheet represents 2. The statement of cash flows provides the information 3. The income statement summarizes the data 4. The statement of retained earnings discloses the information concerning 5. Financial accounting includes the information 6. Managerial accounting deals with||a about a company's revenues, expenses, gains and losses. b relating to the profitability of the company and its financial position. с the main accounting equation. d planning, control, budgeting and pricing decisions. e stockholders' equity and dividends. f about the changes in the financial structure of the company.|
5. Напишите короткое сообщение о своей будущей профессии по плану.
1. What is your future speciality?
2. Who helped you to choose your career?
3. Where do you study to obtain special knowledge?
4. What are your major subjects?
5. Do you have any practical skills in your future profession?
6. Where do you work (where are you going to work after graduation)?
7. What will be your responsibility and position after graduation?
1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.
Karl Marx: It's Exploitation!
Karl Marx, a German economist and political scientist who lived from 1818 to 1883, looked at capitalism from a more pessimistic and revolutionary viewpoint. Where Adam Smith saw harmony and growth, Marx saw instability, struggle, and decline. Marx believed that once the capitalist (the guy with the money and the organizational skills to build a factory) has set up the means of production, all value is created by the labor involved in production. In Marx's view, presented in his 1867 tome Das Kapital (Capital), a capitalist's profits come from exploiting labor—that is, from underpaying workers for the value that they are actually creating. For this reason, Marx couldn't abide the notion of a profit-oriented organization.
This situation of management exploiting labor is the main reason of the class struggle. Marx saw the class struggle at the heart of capitalism, and he predicted that that struggle would ultimately destroy capitalism. To Marx, class struggle intensifies over time. Ultimately, in Marx's view, society moves to a two-class system of a few wealthy capitalists and a mass of underpaid, underprivileged workers.
Marx predicted the fall of capitalism and movement of society toward communism, in which “the people” (that is, the workers) own the means of production and thus have no need to exploit labor for profit. Clearly, Marx's thinking had a tremendous impact on many societies, particularly on the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) in the twentieth century.
While Marx's theories have been discredited, they are fascinating and worth knowing. They also say something about weaknesses in capitalism.
1. Who is Karl Marx?
2. What was Marx’s view at capital and capitalists?
3. How did Marx consider class struggle?
4. What was Marx’s prediction about development of the society?
5. Why his theories are still studied by future economists?
2. Подберите определения к словам из левой колонки
1) corporation a) give up (oneself, one's time, energy etc.)
2) unemployment b) payment which must be paid to somebody
3) deficit c) group of persons authorized to act as an individual
4) budget d) state of being poor
5) debt e) amount by which something is too small
6) consumer f) demand recognition of the fact that one is or owns
7) poverty g) similar estimate made by a business company
8) to claim h) comfortable living and working condition
9) to devote i) state of being unemployed
10) welfare j) person who uses and buys goods
Прочтите текст и заполните таблицу
|Factors influencing the demand||Factors influencing the supply|
Demand and Supply
Demand is the quantity of a good that buyers wish to buy at certain price. Other things equal*, at low prices the demanded quantity is higher.
Supply is the quantity of a good that sellers wish to sell at certain price. Other things equal, when prices are high, the supplied quantity is high as well.
The market is in equilibrium when the price regulates the quantity supplied by producers and the quantity demanded by consumers. When prices are not so high as the equilibrium price, there is excess demand (shortage) raising the price. At prices above the equilibrium price, there is excess supply (surplus) reducing the price.
There are some factors influencing demand for a good, such as the prices of other goods, consumer incomes and some others.
An increase in the price of a substitute good (or a decrease in the price of a complement good) will at the same time raise the demanded quantity. As consumer income is increased, demand for normal goods will also increase but demand for inferior goods will decrease. A normal good is a good for which demand increases when incomes rise. An inferior good is a good for which demand falls when incomes rise.
As to supply, some factors are assumed3 as constant. Among them are technology, the input price, as well as degree of government regulation. An improvement in technology is as important for increasing the supplied quantity of a good as a reduction in input prices.
Government regulates demand and supply, imposing ceiling prices (maximum prices) and floor prices (minimum prices) and adding its own demand to the demand of the private sector.
4. Напишите аннотацию на русском языке к тексту (не более 500 знаков).
Дата: 2018-12-21, просмотров: 596.