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Types of Mill Stand

I. Mill stands have varying roll arrangements and are classified according to type as follows:

four-high, three high, two-high roll mill arrangements, planetary mill roll arrangement, cluster mill roll arrangement.

II. Two-high stands. Mill stands having only two rolls are termed “ two-high”. The stands of primary mills which roll ingots, of reverse rolling mills production sections, and temper mills which make only very light reductions on thin flat products are commonly of this type.

III. Three-high stands. Mill stands with three rolls have a rolling gap between the top and middle roll, and another between the middle and bottom roll. Although the work piece travels through in one direction and back in another, the three-high design avoids the need for a reversing drive. Instead, the rolls run usually at constant speed in the upper and lower gaps. The piece is therefore lifted and lowered to enter each gap in turn, either by mechanical means or, in small mills, by hand. Smaller primary and section mills, and some billet mills, may be three-high.

IV. Four-high stands. Four-high is the term applied to stands employing two working rolls between larger back-up rolls. The back-up rolls minimize bending of the working rolls, and four-high stands, reversing or non-reversing, usually undertake the major final shaping of flat products, particularly in the rolling of sheet, plate, and strip.

V. Planetary stands. A “planetary” mill stand has many small work rolls surrounding each of a pair of large back-up rolls. The design is used for rolling flat products, and for this purpose it has the advantage of achieving large reductions in a “once-through” pass, although the overall rate of production is not usually high.

VI. Cluster stands. A “cluster” mill stand has work rolls of very small diameter, supported by multiple back-up rolls to provide necessary stiffening against bending.

Вариант 11

1. Поставьте предложения в страдательный залог (Образец : Mother waters the flowers in the evening. — The flowers are watered in the evening (by mother). Переведите исходное предложение и предложение в страдательном залоге.


1. A marble pavilion protects the house. 2. The boys will paint the roof of the house. 3. Tom Sawyer whitewashed the fence. 4. The waves carried the boat away. 5. We shall do the translation in the evening.

2. Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Active или Passive Voice. Переведите предложения .


1. They (showed/were shown) many places of interest in Moscow during their last visit. 2. One (will build/will be built) a new metro station next year. 3. Tourists (are admiring/are being admired) Moscow University on the Lenin Hills now.4. The laboratory assistants (were asked/asked) for a new experiment to equip. 5.Newton (founded/was founded) higher mathematics by working out the calculus.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Passive Voice. Переведите предложения .

1. She (to listen) to by everybody yesterday. 2. Papers after the conferences (to publish) often. 3. The results of his ten-year work (to refer to) by many scientists by last month. 4. His scientific work in the field of chemistry (to take notice of) next lecture. 5. His writings (to know) all over the world very often.


Mill stands and rolls


  In most mill stands the rolls are housed horizontally, but “vertical” stands are found in flat product finishing mills for controlling the width of the product. They are important also in modern “continuous” billet mills, where the workpiece can be rolled on all four sides without the need to turn it over between stands, by passing it through alternate horizontal and vertical pairs of rolls.

II. Mill stands and rolls for rolling different products vary greatly in size. In those four rolling rod from which wire is drawn, for example. the rolls may be of only eight inches diameter. By way of contrast a plate mill is to have back-up-rolls - that is, additional rolls above and below the rather smaller work rolls, helping them to resist bending under the rolling load - each of which will be six feet in diameter.  


Rolls perform the main rolling operation - the reduction of metal and forming it into the desired shape. The rolls of a blooming mill consist of several parts: 1) a barrel on which rolls revolve in the bearings; 2) a star-shaped wobbler by means of which rolls are driven. In rolling rolls must withstand high strength. They are made of forged or cast carbon steel with a high ductility. The barrel of the roll may be a simple cylinder for flat rolling or may be grooved if the piece is to be rolled into a definite shape. Plates and sheets are rolled in plain-barreled rolls with a cylindrical working surface. Here the thickness of the metal being rolled is reduced in each pass by decreasing the distance between the rolls. Rolling between plain rolls is characterized by uniform reduction across the width and is accomplished by free speed.

Вариант 12

1. Поставьте предложения в страдательный залог (Образец : Mother waters the flowers in the evening. — The flowers are watered in the evening (by mother).  Переведите исходное предложение и предложение в страдательном залоге.

1. The Normans brought the French language to England. 2. An automatic driver will conduct trains according to the schedule. 3. The students are translating a difficult text in English at present. 4. They will construct a variety of new modern buildings in our town next year. 5. Professor N. usually makes interesting reports in Physics.

2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Active или Passive Voice. Переведите предложения .

1. The author of the famous book (was forgotten/forgot) for some time but later he (was remembered/remembered). 2. Infra-red waves (are stopped/stop) by glass. 3. Everybody (laughed/was laughed) at the joke. 4. The scientists (are paying/are being paid) much attention to the problem of metal shortage at present. 5. 1. Hot dinners (are had/have) here.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Passive Voice. Переведите предложения .

1. The man (to run) over by a motor-car. 2. Your clothes (to looked) after. Enough (to say) at the meeting about the equipment of the chemical laboratory. 3. She (to hand) an important message by Oleg next week. 4. Professor N (to send) for by a first year student already. 5. We (to ask) many questions by the teacher now.


Given these severe conditions, Sumitomo Metals is making full use of the advantages gained from the merger with Nippon Stainless Steel Co., Ltd. in 1992, and is targeting the export market. This year's results were at approximately the same level as last year's.

       Sumitomo's NAR-FC-FC-4 is a highly pure ferritic stainless steel developed as a roofing material. This steel contains 22 % chrome and 2 % molybdenum and has outstandingcorrosion resistance, 1.5 times as great as SUS 304, previously used as a roofing material. NAR-FC-4, being highly resistant to salt corrosion, can be used even in such severely corrosive environments as coastal areas where SUS 304's corrosion resistance is insufficient. This ferritic steel is a suitable roofing material because it has a lower coefficient of thermal expansion than the austenitic SUS 304, so it can prevent leaks caused by thermal

expansion and contraction.

    Light, strong, and corrosion-resistant, titanium has become one of Sumitomo's main products through the combined efforts of Sumitomo Metals Group companies. Titanium quickly became a material for equipment and facilities that exploited its outstanding characteristics in areas such as petrochemical plants, thermal and nuclear power stations, desalination plants, and aircraft applications.

       Sumitomo Metals, together with related companies in the Sumitomo Metals Group, has integrated production systems for commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys. our range of products covers plates, coils, sheets, foil, seamless and welded tubular goods, low finned tubes, fittings, extrusions, bars, wire, rods, forgings, and so on.

       Since 1985 the Company has been certified by aircraft engine and airframe manufacturers to supply titanium alloy products, including materials for the V2500 engine.

Вариант 13

1. Поставьте предложения в страдательный залог (Образец : Mother waters the flowers in the evening. — The flowers are watered in the evening (by mother ). Переведите исходное предложение и предложение в страдательном залоге.

1. I spent all my money on books last month. 2. We shall do all this work today: there is too much of it. 3. When I start doing this, somebody always stops me. 4. Don't leave these sweets on the table: somebody will eat them. 5. The bees attacked the bear when it tried to take their honey.

2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Active или Passive Voice. Переведите предложения .


1. They (wrote/were written) many articles for the magazine last year. 2. All the graduates (defend/ are defended) their candidate theses before the Examination Board. 3. Many compulsory subjects ( will be taken/will take) by the first-year students. 4. These data (are refered to/ refer to) often. 5.The water (has boiled/has been boiled) already.

3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Passive Voice. Переведите предложения .

1. The composition must (to hand) in on Wednesday. 2. Yesterday he (to tell) to prepare a speech. 3. The article (to publish) last week if I am not mistaken. 4. The lectures (to attend) by all of us. 5. A taxi (to call) fifteen minutes ago so we are expecting it any moment.


Sumitomo Metals has continued to develop and sell high-grade steels unrivaled by other countries; fiscal 1993 also saw significant achievements. The Company sold its 60k and 80 k high tensile strength steel for penstock to the People's Republic of China for the Shihsanling hydroelectric power plant (3,2000 tons), to India for the KOYNA project (5,000 tons), and to TheChubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. in Japan for the Okumino power plant (600 tons).

       Sumitomo shipped 25,000 tons of its low YR, X-65 steel to Iran's APM for large-diameter steel pipe. The Company received an order for about 5,000 tons of TMCP (thermomechanical control process) plates for the Sheel Mars tension leg platform in the Gulf of Mexico; shipment began at the end of the fiscal year.

       For bridge construction Sumitomo developed a low-preheating-type 80 k high tensile strength steel; 11,400 tons have been ordered by the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority for stiffening girders to be used in the Akashi Straits bridge, the world's largest suspension bridge. Finally, Sumitomo has begun manufacturing 9 % nickel plates, the highest grade of steel, for Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. to make tanks for storing LNG at low temperatures. Orders have been received also from The Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd. (Kawagoe) and Nippon Gas Co., Ltd. (Kagoshima).

       Steel tube and pipe sales in fiscal 1993 declined by 4 % compared to the previous year, with domestic sales falling by 6 % and exports by 3 %. The domestic market has been experiencing a downturn since the second half of 1991; sales of steel tubes and pipe have fallen in both quantity and value stocks were reduced.


Дата: 2018-12-21, просмотров: 376.