Chapter 1. King Arthur’s story

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ПЕНЗЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

 

Историко-филологический факультет   Кафедра «Перевод и переводведение»

 

Направление подготовки: 45.03.02 Лингвистика Профиль подготовки «Перевод и переводоведение»   УТВЕРЖДАЮ: Зав. кафедрой________________ «___»________________ 2018 г.

 

ЗАДАНИЕ

на курсовую работу по дисциплине «История и культура стран изучаемого языка»

 

Тема: «Популярные фольклорных историй Англии и их развитие»

 

 

Перечень подлежащих разработке вопросов:

1. Формирование и анализ корпуса источников и литературы по проблеме “Английский фольклор”

2. Исследование проблемы “ Появление и развития историй о короле Артуре и Робине Гуде”

3. Разработка концепции “Популярные истории английского фольклора”

4. Анализ и сравнение русского и английского фольклора

 

 

Руководитель работы,

ассистент                                                                       Савостьянов В.О.

5. График выполнения курсовой работы

№ п/п Вид деятельности Срок выполнения раздела Подпись руководителя   Подпись зав. кафедрой
1   Выбор, обоснование и утверждение темы курсовой работы; составление плана курсовой работы; формирование корпуса источников и литературы 04.09 – 24.09    
2 Написание и сдача на проверку введения и 1 главы (раздела) курсовой  работы 25.09 –31.10    
  Текущая аттестация по 1 к.т. 01.11    
3 Написание и сдача на проверку 2, n... главы (раздела), заключения, оформление библиографического списка курсовой работы 02.11 – 14.12    
4 Представление завершенной работы 15.12    
  Текущая аттестация по 2 к.т. 16.12    

 

6. Дата выдачи задания «24 » сентября 2018 г.

 

Руководитель к/р   ________________________________ Савостьянов В.О.

                            (подпись)                                                                             (ФИО)

Задание принял к исполнению студент ________________________________

                                                              (подпись)                                     (ФИО)

 

 


The content

Introduction. 4

Chapter 1. King Arthur’s story. 6

1.1. Wave of French rewriting. 6

1.2. Post-medieval time. 7

1.3. Modern days. 8

1.4. The feasibility of Arthur’s story. 9

Chapter 2. The Robin Hood’s story. 11

2.1 Rising of the popularity. 11

2.2 The twentieth century. 12

2.3 Robin Hood in media. 13

2.4 Feasibility of Robin Hood’s story. 14

Chapter 3. Most known folklore stories and creatures. 15

3.1 Dick Whittington and His Cat 15

3.2 Brownie. 16

3.3 Wild Hunt 17

3.4 Will-O-Wisp. 18

3.5 Black dog. 19

Conclusion. 21

Literature Sources. 23

 

 


Introduction

Folklore is one of the oldest form of art, that usually done orally. It commonly consists of a huge number of fairy tales and stories. For example, English folklore often refers to creatures like pixies, imps, elves. This fantasy-like creatures finds their places in many different folk stories. Also, many of the tails traditionally includes different heroes and villains. In general, all this heroes and villains have real-life equivalents from various periods of time (or commonly based on ideals in these times).

For example, the legend of King Arthur. He is one of the famous England folk heroes. The British leader who led the defense against Saxon in the 5th and 6th centuries. Today, in the age of information, most of Britain and even non-Britain people heard about him. Of course, mostly from television and different shows. For example, popular comedy group Monty Python made a parody film entitled “Monty Python and The Holy Grail”. This film based on the story about the King Arthur and his knights, but presenting it all from a comedy side. This and others pop-sources have a huge influence on Arthur’s image in nowadays. But did we received a true image of Arthur? How much of Arthur’s origin story remained in nowadays Arthur’s stories and films? How much was changed? Before answering this question, we will look at one more popular folk story.

We all heard a story about a brave thief. Thief, who gives luxuries he stole from rich people to poor ones. As you can understand, we are talking about Robin Hood. He was an idol for the ordinary people in the times of the social unrest which takes place in the 15th century. In this period of time, people were upset about new laws that keep them from hunting in forests, which now were controlled and claimed by the crown. In our days, it’s common to see at least one new film about this outlaw. But again, how much of story was changed?                                                                       The object of this work is to study and describe main elements of the English folklore. Also we will look at the development of the 2 most know English folklore characters.

We will reach this goal with the help of several tasks:

1. Describe the original stories and their first appearance.

2. Describe the story of rewriting and how much was changed in these stories.

3. Describe the main elements of English folklore and if it possible, compare it with Russian folklore.

 

Wave of French rewriting

The success of Arthur’s story has encouraged a new wave of rewriting which mostly was done in France [2]. Much of these new stories focus less about Arthur himself, but more about other characters such as Guinevere and Lancelot, Ywain, Percival, Galahad and others. But not only the fact, that new stories changed focus, they also changed the character of Arthur. From skilled and well trained warrior, who takes all military companies by himself, he turned into useless king, mostly doing nothing. For example, here one line from Padel’s work to describe Arthur’s idea of society: “inactivity and acquiescence constituted a central flaw in his otherwise ideal society".[2] Arthur often describe as soft, wise, dignified, and sometimes weak monarch. [3] For example, then Arthur found out a Lancelot’s romance with Guinevere, he remained calm. But none of these weakens has reflected on Arthurs image, his glory and authority has remained the same.                                              One of the most influential poets in period of French’s rewritings was Chrétien de Troyes. [4] He wrote five romances about Arthur around c. 1170 – 1190. Fist of them were tales, dedicated to demonstrate the shift from heroic world of origin. The third tale entitled Yvain, the Knight of the Lion describes adventures of Yvain and Gawain in which Arthur mostly acts on the sides. The most significant story was a story about Lancelot. Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart describes a roman between Lancelot and Arthur’s wife Guinevere, showing that Arthur was a cuckold king[5]. The last story in this cycle tells us about the Holy Grail. Although Perceval, the Story of the Grail was an unfinished peace, it stilled remained popular among readers.                              The development of the Arthurian cycle has come to end in Le Morte d'Arthur. Thomas Malory retold whole story in the single work in English in the late 15th century. This book was one of the earliest printed book in England.[6]

Post-medieval time

In the times of the end of the Middle Ages, the interest to Arthurs story has dropped. People begin to ask about a truthfulness of Arthur’s romances, and even more, about the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain. One of these people was Polydore Vergil. He rejected the fact that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire. He made this rejection to the honor of Welsh and English antiquarians [7]. Moreover, the changes in society also impact on Arthur’s image. Because of these facts, no one saw a new printing of Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur for at least about 200 years. Until 19th century, Arthur’s story appears very rarely.                                                                With a growth of medievalism and Romanticism in 19th century, the story of Arthur has received a second breath. People were interest about the chivalric ideals that mostly embodied in the “Arthur of romance”.            This interest made a huge step in rebirth of Arthur. For example, for the first time in 200 years, the new copy of Malory’s story was printed again[8]. Also, many modern authors were inspired by Arthur’s story, such as William Wordsworth, Alfred Tennyson. Tennyson was a poet, who first write Arthurian poem “The Lady of Shallot”. And again, as followed by medieval traditions, Arthur himself plays a less significant role in the poem. The most popular work of Alfred Tennyson is a work entitled Idylls of the King. In this piece, the role of Arthur was revised. He was turned into a fearless man with an ideal, who wanted to establish ideal kingdom, but fails in causes of human weakness. These work rebirth interest in Arthur’s story in society.                                       The interest doesn’t fade in 19th and 20th centuries. Such authors as Pre-Raphaelite and Edward Burne-Jones were inspired by Arthur’s story[9]. Most of this new stories treated Arthur in more serious way. With time, interest in Arthur’s story spread even in Untied States. Sidney Lanier's The Boy's King Arthur reached wide audiences in its homeland. 

Modern days

In the latter half of the 20th century, the influence of the romance tradition of Arthur continued, through novels such as T. H. White's The Once and Future King (1958) and Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon (1982) in addition to comic strips such as Prince Valiant (from 1937 onward). Tennyson had reworked the romance tales of Arthur to suit and comment upon the issues of his day, and the same is often the case with modern treatments too. For example, Bradley's tale, takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials [10], and American authors often rework the story of Arthur to be more consistent with values such as equality and democracy.                              The Arthur’s story also became popular in theater. For example, T.H. White adapted his novel into musical performance Camelot (1960) with help of Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe. Later Camelot was made itself into a film in 1967. Even popular cartoon maker Walt Disney has made animation film entitled The Sword in the Stone (1963). The romance Arthur was kept in movies such as Éric Rohmer's Perceval le Gallois (1978) and John Boorman's Excalibur (1981). They had received popularity among critics and viewers. In recent years the portrayal of Arthur as a real hero of the 5th century has also made its way into film versions of the Arthurian legend, most notably the TV series' Arthur of the Britons (1972–73) and The Legend of King Arthur (1979), and the feature films King Arthur (2004), The Last Legion (2007), and recent Guy Ritchie’s film King Arthur: Legend of the Sword (2017).     

Rising of the popularity

Although the stories about Robin were appeared in the earliest periods of time, the real popularity came to his tales in the nineteenth century. Such creators and authors as Sir Walter Scott (1820), Joseph Ritson (1795), and Pierce Egan (1838) featured Robin in their works. This period ends with the Pyle (1883) started a new trend in Robin Hood tails [14]. Pyle’s work, The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood (1883) has brought new highs in the writing and publishing images. Mostly this work was designed to suit young audience. This work was reprinted many time in different variations: as text with illustrations, as standalone text, as text with pictures from different artist, as Pyle’s illustrations accompany some other text.                                               But Robin Hood also appeared in the different operas, scene plays and songs. In this time, the big hit was a work of the Ritson entitled Robin Hood: A Collection of all the Ancient Poems, Songs and Ballads [15]. This work was a collection of different Robin Hood stories witch used more historic and scholar notes over others works and tails. After publishing of this work the interest in Robin Hood’s story was kindled again. Next big event in history of the Robin’s popularity took place after publishing of the Scott’s Ivanhoe (1920), which not only features Robin Hood but also shift a main focus to the Norman Saxon conflict.

2.2 The twentieth century

The new plays, operas, song were created after a great success of the Pyle’s work. Most of these works were aimed to the much younger audience. In cause of that, image of the Robin Hood was slightly changed. He was portrayed as a truly heroic person who fighting for true justices and his enemies also was showed more villainously. Robin Hood also often was showed as dispossessed noble of the Tudor period. This detail adds a real purpose to his rebellion. In this period of time, the comic book format was very popular among young audience. And so, comic’s versions of Robin Hood appeared. For example “Robin Hood’s Peril,” by Thriller Comics 27 that was published in earliest 1950’s through March 1963, total producing 450 issues. These comics tells about different establish characters (included Robin Hood) experience classic stories and complete new original material [16]. Most of these stories were popular among young generation. The other example of Robin Hood comic book is "Robin Hood," by Classics Illustrated 7 published in 1942. This Robin Hood comic draws upon many different popular strands, especially reflecting the story as told in Pyle (1883) and The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938). Even Russian has received its own Robin Hood. The book entitled Bows Against the Barons (1934) by Geoffrey Trease. This text shows Robin Hood as a communist warrior fighting against tyranny. But over the time later editions of this book remove such political overtones. The style of drawing recalls to Pyle’s work, but with its own original content.

Robin Hood in media

Almost every generation has had a Robin Hood film, because they are always profitable and popular. Although he is not as popular a figure as some others, like King Arthur, Robin stills manage to have a huge fan base. And this effect can be easily explained. Most of the time Robin Hood’s story full of action and quiet easy to understand. This simplicity allows filmmaker to bring a lot of viewer’s attention to visual part of the movie, such as choreography, costumes and locations. Also, because the Robin Hood’s story has a lack of the fantasy, there is no need in having high budget to make a movie.              Adventures of Robin Hood (1938) by Michael Curtiz and William Keighley is example of the one of the earliest Robin Hood film. It is An action-oriented telling of the legend, it draws upon the earlier Fairbanks film, Robin Hood (1922), for some of its sequences, but ultimately outshines the silent feature in brilliant technicolor. One of the most known film about this outlaw entitled Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves. by Kevin Reynolds. It’s a big-budget film that did very well at the box office, “Prince of Thieves” is not a favorite with Robin Hood scholars and fans. Although some great actor take place in shooting, such as Morgan Freeman, Alan Rickman and other, this film has received a quite medium scores. The film abandoned the high action and technicolor swashbuckling of 1938’s Adventures for a more “realistic” portrayal of the period. Despite its problems, it served to introduce a new generation to the Robin Hood legend, and it highlights certain trends in medievalism. [17]                                                                            Some movie creators tried to adapt Robin Hood’s story to fit a younger audience. For example, the Walt Disney’s first cartoon interpretation of the Robin Hood’s story. All characters in this cartoon presented as an animals. This factor helps children to have a stronger connection with characters and delight the overall tone of Robin Hood’s background story.

In modern time, we still have new films about Robin Hood. There are a lot of different tv shows and upcoming films. All of them share action-driven story and focus on visual effects. Robin Hood is commonly showed as almost super hero, following new media trends.

Brownie

A brownie (broonie) is a house spirit popular in England folklore. He usually come out at night and performs different house tasks and activities like keeping fire lit, clean up room and etc. The owners of the house needed to feed this fairy creature with a bowl of milk or sometimes with a cream [21]. But other offerings are fine too. Most of brownies can be easily offended and can leave house if they will feel bad there. Also, these creatures have a great sense of humor they will prank their owners usually lazy ones. Most of brownies are human sized creatures that always dressed in rags or either naked. If they smell dangerous they can easily disappear or turn into animal.                                        As we learn more about Brownie, we can make decision that similar creatures appears in Russian culture as well. The brownie-like creature in Russian called Domovoy [22]. It shares a lot with his foreign friend. The owners also need to feed up this creature, or it will become angry. Although they both share a lot of similarities, they also have huge differences. Unlike Russian brownie, England one can be freed by receiving gift in form of cloth. The first mention of this comes from Reginald Scot’s The Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584).                                                                               In nowadays brownie sometimes appears in pop culture. For example, a house-elf Dobby in the Harry Potter’s franchise. He shares a dozen similarities with brownies, because Harry Potter’s house-elves are based on the English folklore’s brownies. In actual film we can see a lot of things that brownies usually do.

 

 

Wild Hunt

The Wild Hunt is a folklore tail that usually appears in European folklore. The story describe a group of undead (or elve) hunters passing in wild pursuit. The leader of pursuit is usually name with association with some god like Odin or like historic figure Theodor the Great. The leader also can name in honor of some biblical figure like the Devil, Cain, and Gabriel.                            The name and concept was main developed by Jacob Grimm based on mythology of different countries mostly located all over Europe. Jacob published book Deutsche Mythologie. (1835) in which he described and popularized this event. He said in book that it seems that this myth was formed in pre-Christian Europe.                                                                         The account of the Wild Hunt’s appearance can be founded in the Peterborough Chronicle at the time of the appointment of Henry d'Angely in 1127. “Many men both saw and heard a great number of huntsmen hunting. The huntsmen were black, huge, and hideous, and rode on black horses and on black he-goats, and their hounds were jet black, with eyes like saucers, and horrible. This was seen in the very deer park of the town of Peterborough, and in all the woods that stretch from that same town to Stamford, and in the night the monks heard them sounding and winding their horns.[23]”                          In later accounts the Wild Hunt’s hunter presented as hosting of the fairies. The leader in England version is also varies, it can be King Arthur, Herne the Hunter, Gwydion, Herla, Sir Francis Drake.

One of the England legends tells how King Herla had visited the Fairy King. He was warned not to step down his horse until the greyhound he carried jump down. Almost three centuries has passed during his visit to the Fairy King. The man of his who had stepped down instantly had turned into dust. He and his army are still riding on their horses.                                                         The myth about the Wild Hunt had modifier over the time to much more recent heroes and gods. Even in modern time there are many different source telling us about the Wild Hunt. Country song “Ghost Riders in the Sky” describes a story of cowboy chasing the Devil’s cattle. The Witcher book series by Andrzej Sapkowski and the Witcher game series by CD Project Red also feature The Wild Hunt. Director Alexandre Franchi in 2009 produced his own film describing the Wild Hunt.

Will-O-Wisp

An atmospheric strange light seen by wanderers described as Will-O-Wisp most of the times. The term "will-o'-the-wisp" comes from "wisp", a bundle of sticks or paper sometimes used as a torch, and the name "Will", thus meaning "Will of the torch". [24]                                                        Their unpredictable and mysterious appearance for a long time causes superstition and complicates their scientific research. Even in ancient times, marsh fires intimidated travelers; they are observed even in our time. There are beliefs that some lights, for some unknown reason, are disposed towards people rather aggressively or carry bad news, while others are even able to help in difficult times. Most often, stray lights burn at the height of a raised human hand, have a spherical shape or resemble a candle flame, for which they received another nickname - “a dead man's candle”. The color of this fire can be different, ranging from ghostly white, bluish or greenish and ending with a living flame, without the formation of smoke.                                           A peasant travelling home at dusk sees a bright light traveling along ahead of him. Looking closer, he sees that the light is a lantern held by a "dusky little figure", which he follows for several miles. All of a sudden he finds himself standing on the edge of a vast chasm with a roaring torrent of water rushing below him. At that precise moment the lantern-carrier leaps across the gap, lifts the light high over its head, lets out a malicious laugh and blows out the light, leaving the poor peasant a long way from home, standing in pitch darkness at the edge of a precipice.                                           The Russian have a similar thing called Bludyachiy Ogon'. It is beings in the form of lights, the embodiment of the souls of sinners. The appearance of stray lights can take the souls of unbaptized children, miscarriages, girls who died in the status of bride, hostage-dead [25]. It was generally believed that the lights were the only external signs of wandering souls, but there were also ideas that their carriers had a visible appearance, and the lights were only the most visible parts of it: shiny shirts, glowing heads, candles in their hands, lights on their breasts or hands, burning brooms. Sometimes it is mentioned that only the hand holding the candle was visible. The form and color of the fire are also described differently: blue lights, candle ends, large candles with human faces, and others. The Poles believed that the more sinful people had a darker soul.                                                                                           They appear more often in the cemetery, swamps, roads, meadows, fields, aisles, above the water. By time: at night, especially at midnight, from spring to autumn, and also on the night before Christmas, on Advent, on memorial days.                                                                                        Usually they force a person to wander, knock him out of the way, lure him into difficult places. Some believed that they should not be told about a meeting with them in order not to go to hell after death.                                    There are several hypotheses about the emergence of mysterious lights. This is the spontaneous combustion of gaseous phosphorous hydrogen produced by the decay of dead plant and animal organisms. or bioluminescence, for example, of honey agaric or fireflies. Newer versions of the explanation of the origin of marsh fires - radioactive fallout, light of highways, cellular towers, etc.               

Black dog

A Black dog - ghostly huge dog, characters of folklore of the British Isles. The black dog is predominantly a night ghost, as is often considered to be associated with the Devil, and a meeting with him is considered an omen of death. Usually, a black dog is described as being much larger than an ordinary dog ​​in size and with a large luminous bright red or fiery eyes (or one eye located in the center of the muzzle). They allegedly often appear in a thunderstorm, as well as at intersections, places where execution has ever taken place, and just on old roads.                                                          The origin of the image of a black dog is difficult to explain unequivocally. Most likely, this motive has penetrated into the British culture from Celtic or Germanic myths, but it is impossible to establish which ones. In many European mythologies, dogs were somehow connected with death (Garm, Cerberus, and others, moreover, they were all somehow presented as guardians of the underworld). It is possible that the black dog is a reflection of these mythological ideas.                                                                       Almost always black dogs are considered to be creatures malicious to humans. But some black dogs, however, such as the Gurt Dog in Somerset and the Black Dog of the Hanging Hills in Connecticut, are said to behave benevolently. [26]                                                                                       For centuries in the UK reported the observations of such creatures, but their real existence has not been proven.

Conclusion

In conclusion we can see how English folklore has developed. It went through a long way of constant changes and improvements. Many authors have contributed to the development of folklore. For example, stories about King Arthur showed us how the image of the hero changed over time. The Round Table and other important attributes of history appeared only after some time. We could track which trends followed the stories and how they changed in cause of them. All this makes it clear that folklore is a complex and constantly evolving system of knowledge.                                                                However, it is worth noting that English folklore often consists of borrowing from other cultures. For example, the Wild Hunt initially appears in the Scandinavian mythology and only then was adapted to the mythology of England. Such interactions enrich the English folklore making it more diverse and complex. There are also similarities between Russian and English folk. Things like brownies have similarities in both cultures. And despite the many similarities, each such element reflects its own culture, emphasizing the values important to it.                                                                      Developing, folklore became part of the pop culture. An example of this are, for example, the popular comics about Robin Hood, a lot of movies and stories about King Arthur, mentions of various mythical creatures in fantastic stories such as house-elves (brownie) in Harry Potter.                                At the present time, most folklore events have their own scientific explanations. For example, as stated above, archeologists questioned the existence of King Arthur. The same as Robin Hood most likely has always been just a fairy tale about forest outlaw. But despite this, these stories do not lose their relevance and demand in English culture. After all, the images of these heroes represent the entire culture of their nation. And the vitality of these stories proves this.                                                                           Perhaps folklore and not a reliable source of information, it is quite broadly showing the views of society. It is impossible to imagine a country without its folklore. After all, folklore is no less important than the history.

In this work we managed to answer several question about English folklore:

‒ How much of King Arthur’ story was changed over the time and how it became popular;

‒ How much of Robin Hood’s story was changed over the time and how it became popular;

‒ Trends of rewriting;

‒ England folklore in pop culture;

 

 

Literature Sources

1. Geoffrey of Monmouth: The History of the Kings of Britain, 1989 ‒ p.64

2. Padel, O. J.: Arthur in Medieval Welsh Literature, 2000, ‒ pp. 24-25

3. Charles-Edwards, Thomas M. : "The Arthur of History", 1991 ‒ p. 15

4. Lacy, Norris J.: The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, 1996 ‒ p. 88

5. Ulrich von Zatzikhoven : Lanzelet, Translated by Thomas Kerth, 2005 ‒ p. 294

6. Field, P. J. C.: The Life and Times of Sir Thomas Malory, 1993 ‒ p. 32

7. Carley, J. P.: "Polydore Vergil and John Leland on King Arthur: The Battle of the Books, 1984, pp.86–100.

8. Staines, D.: Tennyson, Alfred Lord, 1996, pp. 446–449,

9. Taylor, Beverly: The Return of King Arthur: British and American Arthurian Literature Since 1800, 1983, p.101

10. Lagorio, V. M.: "Bradley, Marion Zimmer", in Lacy, Norris J., The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, 1996, p. 57

11. Dobson, R. B., and J. Taylor. Rymes of Robyn Hood: An Introduction to the English Outlaw, 1976, pp. 3-7

12. Gable, J. Harris. Bibliography of Robin Hood, 1939, p. 52

13. Drayton, Michael: The Poly-Olbion: a chorographicall description of Great Britain, 1622, p.120,

14. Thompson E.P. The Making of the English Working Class. ‒ NY: Vintage Books, 1966. ‒ p.976

15. Knight, Stephen: Robin Hood: A Complete Study of the English Outlaw, 1994, p.99

16. Knight, Stephen. Robin Hood: A Mythic Biography, 2003, p.24

17. Hahn, Thomas: Robin Hood in Popular Culture: Violence, Transgression, and Justice, 2000, pp. 55-62

 

Internet Sources

18. Archaeologist Claims that King Arthur Was Not a Real Person But a Fictional “Celtic Superhero” [Electronic Source] // https://www.ancient-origins.net/: information reference site. URL: https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/archaeologist-claims-king-arthur-was-not-real-person-fictional-celtic-021652 (Date of application: 8.12.18).

19.Robin Hood: Development of a Popular Hero [Electronic Source] // https://www.library.rochester.edu//URL:https://www.library.rochester.edu/robbins/robin-hood-chandler#intro(Date of application: 15.12.18).

20. Dick Whittington and His Cat, [Electronic Source] // https://en.wikipedia.org/, URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Whittington_and_His_Cat (Date of application: 17.12.18).

21. Brownie (folklore), [Electronic Source] //  http://myfhology.info//, URL: http://myfhology.info/monsters/domovoy.html (Date of application: 17.12.18).

22.Домовой,[Electronic Source]// https://en.wikipedia.org/,     URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownie_(folklore)   (Date of application: 17.12.18).      

23.Wild Hunt, [Electronic Source] // https://en.wikipedia.org/, URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_Hunt (Date of application: 16.12.18).                

24. Will-o'-the-wisp, [Electronic Source] // https://en.wikipedia.org/, URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will-o%27-the-wisp (Date of application: 17.12.18)   

25. Блуждающие огоньки, [Electronic Source] // https://www.bestiary.us/,URL: https://www.bestiary.us/bluzhdajushhie-ogonki/ru (Date of application: 17.12.18).

26. Black dog (ghost), [Electronic Source] // https://en.wikipedia.org/, URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Black_dog_(ghost) (Date of application: 17.12.18).

 

 

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ПЕНЗЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

 

Историко-филологический факультет   Кафедра «Перевод и переводведение»

 

Направление подготовки: 45.03.02 Лингвистика Профиль подготовки «Перевод и переводоведение»   УТВЕРЖДАЮ: Зав. кафедрой________________ «___»________________ 2018 г.

 

ЗАДАНИЕ

на курсовую работу по дисциплине «История и культура стран изучаемого языка»

 

Тема: «Популярные фольклорных историй Англии и их развитие»

 

 

Перечень подлежащих разработке вопросов:

1. Формирование и анализ корпуса источников и литературы по проблеме “Английский фольклор”

2. Исследование проблемы “ Появление и развития историй о короле Артуре и Робине Гуде”

3. Разработка концепции “Популярные истории английского фольклора”

4. Анализ и сравнение русского и английского фольклора

 

 

Руководитель работы,

ассистент                                                                       Савостьянов В.О.

5. График выполнения курсовой работы

№ п/п Вид деятельности Срок выполнения раздела Подпись руководителя   Подпись зав. кафедрой
1   Выбор, обоснование и утверждение темы курсовой работы; составление плана курсовой работы; формирование корпуса источников и литературы 04.09 – 24.09    
2 Написание и сдача на проверку введения и 1 главы (раздела) курсовой  работы 25.09 –31.10    
  Текущая аттестация по 1 к.т. 01.11    
3 Написание и сдача на проверку 2, n... главы (раздела), заключения, оформление библиографического списка курсовой работы 02.11 – 14.12    
4 Представление завершенной работы 15.12    
  Текущая аттестация по 2 к.т. 16.12    

 

6. Дата выдачи задания «24 » сентября 2018 г.

 

Руководитель к/р   ________________________________ Савостьянов В.О.

                            (подпись)                                                                             (ФИО)

Задание принял к исполнению студент ________________________________

                                                              (подпись)                                     (ФИО)

 

 


The content

Introduction. 4

Chapter 1. King Arthur’s story. 6

1.1. Wave of French rewriting. 6

1.2. Post-medieval time. 7

1.3. Modern days. 8

1.4. The feasibility of Arthur’s story. 9

Chapter 2. The Robin Hood’s story. 11

2.1 Rising of the popularity. 11

2.2 The twentieth century. 12

2.3 Robin Hood in media. 13

2.4 Feasibility of Robin Hood’s story. 14

Chapter 3. Most known folklore stories and creatures. 15

3.1 Dick Whittington and His Cat 15

3.2 Brownie. 16

3.3 Wild Hunt 17

3.4 Will-O-Wisp. 18

3.5 Black dog. 19

Conclusion. 21

Literature Sources. 23

 

 


Introduction

Folklore is one of the oldest form of art, that usually done orally. It commonly consists of a huge number of fairy tales and stories. For example, English folklore often refers to creatures like pixies, imps, elves. This fantasy-like creatures finds their places in many different folk stories. Also, many of the tails traditionally includes different heroes and villains. In general, all this heroes and villains have real-life equivalents from various periods of time (or commonly based on ideals in these times).

For example, the legend of King Arthur. He is one of the famous England folk heroes. The British leader who led the defense against Saxon in the 5th and 6th centuries. Today, in the age of information, most of Britain and even non-Britain people heard about him. Of course, mostly from television and different shows. For example, popular comedy group Monty Python made a parody film entitled “Monty Python and The Holy Grail”. This film based on the story about the King Arthur and his knights, but presenting it all from a comedy side. This and others pop-sources have a huge influence on Arthur’s image in nowadays. But did we received a true image of Arthur? How much of Arthur’s origin story remained in nowadays Arthur’s stories and films? How much was changed? Before answering this question, we will look at one more popular folk story.

We all heard a story about a brave thief. Thief, who gives luxuries he stole from rich people to poor ones. As you can understand, we are talking about Robin Hood. He was an idol for the ordinary people in the times of the social unrest which takes place in the 15th century. In this period of time, people were upset about new laws that keep them from hunting in forests, which now were controlled and claimed by the crown. In our days, it’s common to see at least one new film about this outlaw. But again, how much of story was changed?                                                                       The object of this work is to study and describe main elements of the English folklore. Also we will look at the development of the 2 most know English folklore characters.

We will reach this goal with the help of several tasks:

1. Describe the original stories and their first appearance.

2. Describe the story of rewriting and how much was changed in these stories.

3. Describe the main elements of English folklore and if it possible, compare it with Russian folklore.

 

Chapter 1. King Arthur’s story

Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain. The legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest largely through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae. In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh Otherworld, Annwn. How much of Geoffrey's Historia (completed in 1138) was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown.             All stories about the King Arthur have similar themes, but most of characters and events have significant difference from one interpretation to another. And there is no canon in these stories. We can tell only that the original Geoffrey’s story often serving as reference for starting point. Main elements and characters appear in this original story, such as: the sword Excalibur, the wizard Merlin, final battle against Mordred at Camlann, and etc [1].

Wave of French rewriting

The success of Arthur’s story has encouraged a new wave of rewriting which mostly was done in France [2]. Much of these new stories focus less about Arthur himself, but more about other characters such as Guinevere and Lancelot, Ywain, Percival, Galahad and others. But not only the fact, that new stories changed focus, they also changed the character of Arthur. From skilled and well trained warrior, who takes all military companies by himself, he turned into useless king, mostly doing nothing. For example, here one line from Padel’s work to describe Arthur’s idea of society: “inactivity and acquiescence constituted a central flaw in his otherwise ideal society".[2] Arthur often describe as soft, wise, dignified, and sometimes weak monarch. [3] For example, then Arthur found out a Lancelot’s romance with Guinevere, he remained calm. But none of these weakens has reflected on Arthurs image, his glory and authority has remained the same.                                              One of the most influential poets in period of French’s rewritings was Chrétien de Troyes. [4] He wrote five romances about Arthur around c. 1170 – 1190. Fist of them were tales, dedicated to demonstrate the shift from heroic world of origin. The third tale entitled Yvain, the Knight of the Lion describes adventures of Yvain and Gawain in which Arthur mostly acts on the sides. The most significant story was a story about Lancelot. Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart describes a roman between Lancelot and Arthur’s wife Guinevere, showing that Arthur was a cuckold king[5]. The last story in this cycle tells us about the Holy Grail. Although Perceval, the Story of the Grail was an unfinished peace, it stilled remained popular among readers.                              The development of the Arthurian cycle has come to end in Le Morte d'Arthur. Thomas Malory retold whole story in the single work in English in the late 15th century. This book was one of the earliest printed book in England.[6]

Post-medieval time

In the times of the end of the Middle Ages, the interest to Arthurs story has dropped. People begin to ask about a truthfulness of Arthur’s romances, and even more, about the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain. One of these people was Polydore Vergil. He rejected the fact that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire. He made this rejection to the honor of Welsh and English antiquarians [7]. Moreover, the changes in society also impact on Arthur’s image. Because of these facts, no one saw a new printing of Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur for at least about 200 years. Until 19th century, Arthur’s story appears very rarely.                                                                With a growth of medievalism and Romanticism in 19th century, the story of Arthur has received a second breath. People were interest about the chivalric ideals that mostly embodied in the “Arthur of romance”.            This interest made a huge step in rebirth of Arthur. For example, for the first time in 200 years, the new copy of Malory’s story was printed again[8]. Also, many modern authors were inspired by Arthur’s story, such as William Wordsworth, Alfred Tennyson. Tennyson was a poet, who first write Arthurian poem “The Lady of Shallot”. And again, as followed by medieval traditions, Arthur himself plays a less significant role in the poem. The most popular work of Alfred Tennyson is a work entitled Idylls of the King. In this piece, the role of Arthur was revised. He was turned into a fearless man with an ideal, who wanted to establish ideal kingdom, but fails in causes of human weakness. These work rebirth interest in Arthur’s story in society.                                       The interest doesn’t fade in 19th and 20th centuries. Such authors as Pre-Raphaelite and Edward Burne-Jones were inspired by Arthur’s story[9]. Most of this new stories treated Arthur in more serious way. With time, interest in Arthur’s story spread even in Untied States. Sidney Lanier's The Boy's King Arthur reached wide audiences in its homeland. 

Modern days

In the latter half of the 20th century, the influence of the romance tradition of Arthur continued, through novels such as T. H. White's The Once and Future King (1958) and Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon (1982) in addition to comic strips such as Prince Valiant (from 1937 onward). Tennyson had reworked the romance tales of Arthur to suit and comment upon the issues of his day, and the same is often the case with modern treatments too. For example, Bradley's tale, takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials [10], and American authors often rework the story of Arthur to be more consistent with values such as equality and democracy.                              The Arthur’s story also became popular in theater. For example, T.H. White adapted his novel into musical performance Camelot (1960) with help of Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe. Later Camelot was made itself into a film in 1967. Even popular cartoon maker Walt Disney has made animation film entitled The Sword in the Stone (1963). The romance Arthur was kept in movies such as Éric Rohmer's Perceval le Gallois (1978) and John Boorman's Excalibur (1981). They had received popularity among critics and viewers. In recent years the portrayal of Arthur as a real hero of the 5th century has also made its way into film versions of the Arthurian legend, most notably the TV series' Arthur of the Britons (1972–73) and The Legend of King Arthur (1979), and the feature films King Arthur (2004), The Last Legion (2007), and recent Guy Ritchie’s film King Arthur: Legend of the Sword (2017).     

Дата: 2019-02-02, просмотров: 140.