II Раскройте скобки, употребив инфинитив или герундий                   

Контрольная работа №2

Вариант I

I   а) переведите текст в письменной форме;

        б) выпишите глаголы в страдательном залоге и определите их время;

        в) выпишите неличные формы глагола и определите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Unemployment

We say that unemployment exists where people capable and willing to work are unable to find suitable paid employment. But where an economy is adapting to changing conditions, there will always be some persons unemployed as they change jobs or as seasonal work comes to an end.

Unemployment may occur for many different reasons. There will always be some people changing jobs. In certain occupations, e.g. unskilled labour in the construction industry, workers are not employed regularly by one employer. When a contract is completed, labour is not required. Occasionally workers are discharged when a factory is being reorganized.

Unemployed workers usually register at the local employment exchange from which employers can hire them. The unemployed are paid certain benefits.

Employment in some industries, e.g. building, fruipicking is seasonal in character. Sometimes there are unemployed workers of a particular occupation in one part of the country but a shortage of the same type of work in other parts. Thus today there is a surplus of unskilled and manual labourers in the north if England, whereas firms in the London area have vacancies unfilled. Two main reasons can be suggested for this type of unemployment – ignorance of opportunities and immobility of labour.

Workers may be in “between jobs”. Some of them are looking for better jobs, others are seeking better salaries. Young people search for their first jobs. This is called “frictional unemployment”. This type is usually short-term and regarded as inevitable.

Unemployment may also be caused by important changes in the structure of consumer demand and in technology. As a result some workers find that their skills and experience are unwanted by these changes. This type of employment is more long-term and regarded as more serious. It is known as structural unemployment. The full-employment or natural rate of unemployment ranges between 5 and 6 percent.

II Раскройте скобки, употребив инфинитив или герундий                   

1) I started (write) my letter this afternoon                                                             

2) She promised (go) to the doctor. 

3) (Travel) by air is interesting.

4) She enjoys (cook) Indian meals.

5) Would you mind (open) the window?

III Образуйте следующие формы от глаголов

Use – Simple Passive Infinitive;

Occupy – Perfect Passive Infinitive;

Sign – Participle II;

Explain - Participle I Perfect;

Write – non-perfect Passive Gerund;

IV Выберите правильный ответ

1) Are there (much, a lot, many) houses in your street.

2) There are (a lot, a lot of, a little) things on the table.

3) I have (no, every, no one) relatives here.

4) Do you see (anything, nothing, somebody) in the distance?

5) Will you go (somewhere, somebody, anywhere) in the summer?

V Переведите с русского языка на английский

1) Вчера был подписан важный контракт

2) Я бы хотел, чтобы Вы посетили нас завтра

3) Когда будут испытывать это оборудование?

4) Фирма, строящая этот дом, является одной из лучших строительных фирм

5) Дом, построенный этой фирмой, имеет все современные удобства.

Вариант II

I а) переведите текст в письменной форме;

б) выпишите глаголы в страдательном залоге и определите их время;

в) выпишите неличные формы глагола и определите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Securities

Securities are a juridical document entitling an owner to a share of the property of the organization having issued these securities and consequently to a part of the incomes. In other words securities are an article. It brings money from sale to the organization-seller that has issued these securities. To the buyer it entitles to claim a property and income share of the organization. Just as there exist trading houses, shops, purchase and sale markets, there exist special structures to sale securities (stock exchanges etc.). There exist several kinds of securities. Here are the main ones among them.

The share is a security issued by a company. It certifies that its owner paid in a certain sum of money and consequently has the right to dividends.

Bonds are securities issued by enterprises. It assures that its owner paid in a certain sum of money and confirms that it is to be made up by the stipulated time with a fixed interest paid. If under the bond a regular profit payment is intended, it is made as a rule in the form of coupons. A coupon is a tear-off check with a figure of coupon rate printed on it. The fact of the profit payment is marked by cutting out the coupon.

The bill of exchange is a debenture undertaken by a bill debtor that he is sure to pay the debt and an interest on it to the owner of the bill by the fixed time.

The savings certificate is a certificate saying that a definite sum of money is deposited with a bank and its owner has the right to the get his deposit and interest on it on the expiry of a fixed period.

Treasury obligation is a kind of securities which is distributed by a government among the population on a contract basis. It assures that its holder put valuable means into the state budget and entitles to a fixed profit during the whole period of possessing it.

Вариант III

I а) переведите текст в письменной форме;

б) выпишите глаголы в страдательном залоге и определите их время;

в) выпишите неличные формы глагола и определите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Exchanges in Russia

There are different types of exchanges all over the world. They are commodity exchanges, currency exchanges and stock exchanges.

The first exchanges in Russia were commodity exchanges as the country is rich in natural resources. Besides at the end of the 80s there was a growing shortage of goods and raw materials and the centrally planned system collapsed.

Currency exchanges have been operating in this country since 1989. Their task is to fix the official rates of exchange. In the course of the trading sessions freely-convertible currency is bought and sold for Russian roubles.

The first stock exchange, the Moscow International Stock Ex­change, was established in 1990. Among its founders were the Min­istry of Finance and a number of banks. The other stock exchange is the Moscow Central Stock Exchange which is closely connected with the Commodity Exchange and the regional stock exchanges. Stock exchanges regulate the circulation of shares issued by joint stock companies. All these types of exchanges help Russia improve its financial system during its transition to a market economy.

Вариант IV

I а) переведите текст в письменной форме;

б) выпишите глаголы в страдательном залоге и определите их время;

в) выпишите неличные формы глагола и определите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Securities Markets

Securities are bought and sold at two types of securities markets: primary markets, which issue new securities, and secondary markets, where previously issued securities are bought and sold. If a company wants to sell a new issue of stock or bonds, it usually negotiates with an investment bank, or underwriter who sells the securities for it. The underwriter buys the securities from the corporation and resells then to individual investors through the secondary market.

Organized securities exchanges have developed to make the buying and selling of securities easier. The securities exchanges consist of the individual investors, brokers, and intermediaries who deal in the purchase and sale of securities. Securities exchanges do not buy or sell securities, they simply provide the location and services for the brokers who buy and sell.

Stock transactions are handled by a stockbroker. A stockbroker buys and sells securities for clients. Stockbrokers act on the clients’ orders. Stockbrokers receive a fee and are associated with a brokerage house. To trade on the exchange a “seat” must be purchased. A seat is a membership. The members represent stockbrokers. When a stockbroker calls in an order to sell, one member representing that broker looks for a buyer at the price requested. When a broker calls an order to buy, the exchange looks for a buyer at the price offered.

The largest and best known exchange in the USA is the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), also called the “Big Board”- there are 1300 seats on the NYSE and approximately 2000 stocks and 3400 bonds are traded daily. In order to be dated on the NYSE, a firm has to meet the following requirements: 1) Pretax earnings of at least $ 2.5 million in the previous year.2) Tangible assets of at least $16 million. 3) At least 1 million shares of stock publicly held, and others.

The second largest stock exchange in the USA is the American Stock Exchange. It is located in Manhattan. AMEX operates in much the same way as NYSE, but smaller companies may qualify for listing.

There are also regional stock exchanges that serve regional markets.

About 5000 brokers sell & buy unlisted securities outside of the organized securities exchanges which are scattered all over the country. They trade unlisted stocks and bonds by phone and keep in contact with each other.

The prices of securities are established by supply and demand. Electronic screens in the offices of the brokerage firms display transactions, so brokers continually keep customers on the latest prices.

Options are trade on the major stock exchanges, but also on a special market bond options, the Chicago Bond Options Exchange (CBOE).

Вариант V

I а) переведите текст в письменной форме;

б) выпишите глаголы в страдательном залоге и определите их время;

в) выпишите неличные формы глагола и определите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Basic forms of business organization

All businesses are known to take one of three basic forms: the sole proprietorship, the partnership and the corporation. Which of these forms of organization you choose depends on such questions as the size of your business, whether you are the only owner of your business or you have partners.

A sole proprietorship is a business that is owned, and often run, by one person (usually taking the title of President) who receives all the profits and bears all the liabilities of the business. Such kinds of business are in the service industries such as repairing shops, restaurants, etc.

A partnership is a voluntary legal association of two and more people for the purpose of running a business. And each partner declares his or her share of profit or loss on the personal income tax return. Partnership has some disadvantages. This business fails when one of the partners loses his interest or disagrees with the other.

A corporation is a firm that exists as an independent legal entity, with ownership divided into shares. The owners of the shares are known as stockholders or shareholders. A key feature of the corporation is the limited liability. It means that the liability of the stockholders for debts of the firm is limited to the amount of money they paid to buy shares. There are some advantages such as being able to attract financial resources, and to attract talented specialists and managers due to high salaries. In general, this form is economically better for business when its profit reaches a great amount of money.

Since no one form of business organization is perfect, the so-called hybrids have been devised like: franchises, limited partnerships, cooperatives and joint ventures.

By the end of 1987 over 250 foreign firms had expressed an interest in setting up joint ventures in the territory of the ex-USSR. It was decided that joint ventures would contribute to further development of the country’s trade, economic, scientific and technical cooperation. A lot of joint ventures have been set up in different branches of industry and in the service sector since Russia started carrying out major economic reforms. Joint ventures play an important role in attracting foreign technology, management experience and additional material and financial resources. There are certain legal requirements for Russian and foreign participants wishing to set up a joint venture. A joint venture must be a legal entity to have the right to conclude contracts in its name.

Контрольная работа №2

Вариант I

I   а) переведите текст в письменной форме;

        б) выпишите глаголы в страдательном залоге и определите их время;

        в) выпишите неличные формы глагола и определите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Unemployment

We say that unemployment exists where people capable and willing to work are unable to find suitable paid employment. But where an economy is adapting to changing conditions, there will always be some persons unemployed as they change jobs or as seasonal work comes to an end.

Unemployment may occur for many different reasons. There will always be some people changing jobs. In certain occupations, e.g. unskilled labour in the construction industry, workers are not employed regularly by one employer. When a contract is completed, labour is not required. Occasionally workers are discharged when a factory is being reorganized.

Unemployed workers usually register at the local employment exchange from which employers can hire them. The unemployed are paid certain benefits.

Employment in some industries, e.g. building, fruipicking is seasonal in character. Sometimes there are unemployed workers of a particular occupation in one part of the country but a shortage of the same type of work in other parts. Thus today there is a surplus of unskilled and manual labourers in the north if England, whereas firms in the London area have vacancies unfilled. Two main reasons can be suggested for this type of unemployment – ignorance of opportunities and immobility of labour.

Workers may be in “between jobs”. Some of them are looking for better jobs, others are seeking better salaries. Young people search for their first jobs. This is called “frictional unemployment”. This type is usually short-term and regarded as inevitable.

Unemployment may also be caused by important changes in the structure of consumer demand and in technology. As a result some workers find that their skills and experience are unwanted by these changes. This type of employment is more long-term and regarded as more serious. It is known as structural unemployment. The full-employment or natural rate of unemployment ranges between 5 and 6 percent.

II Раскройте скобки, употребив инфинитив или герундий                   

1) I started (write) my letter this afternoon                                                             

2) She promised (go) to the doctor. 

3) (Travel) by air is interesting.

4) She enjoys (cook) Indian meals.

5) Would you mind (open) the window?

Дата: 2019-02-02, просмотров: 245.