Exercise 3. Translate from Russian into English. Pay attention on translation Active and Passive voice. Determine the grammar tense.

До конца 19 века единственным сварочным процессом была кузнечная сварка.

Кузнецы использовали кузнечную сварку, чтобы соединять железо и сталь нагреванием и ковкой молотом.

3. Сварку применяли для увеличения размеров заготовки, придания изделиям нужной формы, соединения разнородных металлов для улучшения качества лезвий режущего и рубящего оружия.

4. Кузнечная сварка была основным, хорошо разработанным и освоенным технологическим приемом при изготовлении всевозможных железных и стальных изделий.

5. С помощью кузнечной сварки изготавливали около 70 % металлических изделий.

Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the statements.


1. Electroslag welding appeared after laser beam welding.  
2. Forge welding is the ancient process of welding.  
3. Welding cannot be done in outer space while.  
4. Welding technology could not aadvance quickly during the World War I and World War II .  
5. Resistance welding appeared soon after oxyfuel welding.  
6. Shielded metal arc welding is a manual process.  
7. Electron beam welding was invented in the first part of 20th century.  
  8. Brazing bonds workpieces without melting  

Higher level:

Text 3. History of welding

The history of joining metals goes back several millennia, with the earliest examples of welding from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age in Europe and the Middle East. Welding was used in the construction of the iron pillar in Delhi, India, erected about 310 AD and weighing 5.4metric tons.

The Middle Ages brought advances in forge welding, in which blacksmiths pounded heated metal repeatedly until bonding occurred. In 1540, Vannoccio Biringuccio published De la pirotechnia, which includes descriptions of the forging operation. Renaissance craftsmen were skilled in the process, and the industry continued to grow during the following centuries. Welding, however, was transformed during the 19th century.

In 1802, Russian scientist Vasily Petrov discovered the electric arc and subsequently proposed its possible practical applications, including welding. In 1881-82 a Russian inventor Nikolai Benardos created the first electric arc welding method known as carbon arc welding, using carbon electrodes. The advances in arc welding continued with the invention of metal electrodes in the late 1800s by a Russian, Nikolai Slavyanov (1888), and an American, C. L. Coffin (1890). Around 1900, A. P. Strohmenger released a coated metal electrode in Britain, which gave a more stable arc. In 1905 Russian scientist Vladimir Mitkevich proposed the usage of three-phase electric arc for welding. In 1919, alternating current welding was invented by C. J. Holslag but did not become popular for another decade.

Resistance welding was also developed during the final decades of the 19th century, with the first patents going to Elihu Thomson in 1885, who produced further advances over the next 15 years. Thermite welding was invented in 1893, and around that time another process, oxyfuel welding, became well established. Acetylene was discovered in 1836 by Edmund Davy, but its use was not practical in welding until about 1900, when a suitable blowtorch was developed at first, oxyfuel welding was one of the more popular welding methods due to its portability and relatively low cost. As the 20th century progressed, however, it fell out of favor for industrial applications. It was largely replaced with arc welding, as metal coverings (known as flux) for the electrode that stabilize the arc and shield the base material from impurities continued to be developed.

World War I caused a major surge in the use of welding processes, with the various military powers attempting to determine which of the several new welding processes would be best. The British primarily used arc welding, even constructing a ship, the Fulagar, with an entirely welded hull. Arc welding was first applied to aircraft during the war as well, as some German airplane fuselages were constructed using the process.Also noteworthy is the first welded road bridge in the world, designed by Stefan Bryła of the Warsaw University of Technology in 1927, and built across the river Słudwia Maurzyce near Łowicz, Poland in 1929.

During the 1920s, major advances were made in welding technology, including the introduction of automatic welding in 1920, in which electrode wire was fed continuously. Shielding gas became a subject receiving much attention, as scientists attempted to protect welds from the effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Porosity and brittleness were the primary problems, and the solutions that developed included the use of hydrogen, argon, and helium as welding atmospheres. During the following decade, further advances allowed for the welding of reactive metals like aluminum and magnesium. This in conjunction with developments in automatic welding, alternating current, and fluxes fed a major expansion of arc welding during the 1930s and then during World War II.

During the middle of the century, many new welding methods were invented. 1930 saw the release of stud welding, which soon became popular in shipbuilding and construction. Submerged arc welding was invented the same year and continues to be popular today. In 1932 a Russian, Konstantin Khrenov successfully implemented the first underwater electric arc welding. Gas tungsten arc welding, after decades of development, was finally perfected in 1941, and gas metal arc welding followed in 1948, allowing for fast welding of non-ferrous materials but requiring expensive shielding gases. Shielded metal arc welding was developed during the 1950s, using a flux-coated consumable electrode, and it quickly became the most popular metal arc welding process. In 1957, the flux-cored arc welding process debuted, in which the self-shielded wire electrode could be used with automatic equipment, resulting in greatly increased welding speeds, and that same year, plasma arc welding was invented. Electroslag welding was introduced in 1958, and it was followed by its cousin, electrogas welding, in 1961. In 1953 the Soviet scientist N. F. Kazakov proposed the diffusion bonding method.

Other recent developments in welding include the 1958 breakthrough of electron beam welding, making deep and narrow welding possible through the concentrated heat source. Following the invention of the laser in 1960, laser beam welding debuted several decades later, and has proved to be especially useful in high-speed, automated welding. In 1991 friction stir welding was invented in the UK and found high-quality applications all over the world. All of these three new processes, however, continue to be quite expensive due the high cost of the necessary equipment, and this has limited their applications.


application  - применение carbon electrode - угольный электрод arc welding - дуговая сварка invention - изобретение coated metal electrode - покрытый металлом электрод scientist - ученый alternating current - переменный тoк attempt - попытка torch - горелка determine - определять porosity - пористость brittleness - хрупкость heat source - источник энергии stud welding - сварка встык

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