What Shall I Do With My Newfound Pen of Light?
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In late 2016 I travelled to northern California to meet a friend and business associate. We spent an evening together thinking and talking. At one point he took a pen from his jacket and took a few notes. It was LED‑equipped and beamed light out its tip, so that writing in the dark was made easier. “Just another gadget,” I thought. Later, however, in a more metaphorical frame of mind, I was struck quite deeply by the idea of a pen of light. There was something symbolic about it, something metaphysical. We’re all in the dark, after all, much of the time. We could all use something written with light to guide us along our way. I told him I wanted to do some writing, while we sat and conversed, and I asked him if he would give me the pen, as a gift. When he handed it over, I found myself inordinately pleased. Now I could write illuminated words in the darkness! Obviously, it was important to do such a thing properly. So I said to myself, in all seriousness, “What shall I do with my newfound pen of light?” There are two verses in the New Testament that pertain to such things. I’ve thought about them a lot:


Ask, and it shall given to you; Seek, and ye shall find; Knock, and it shall be open unto you: For everyone who asks receives; the one who seeks finds; and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened (Matthew 7:7‑7:8)


At first glance, this seems like nothing but a testament to the magic of prayer, in the sense of entreating God to grant favours. But God, whatever or whoever He may be, is no simple granter of wishes. When tempted by the Devil himself, in the desert–as we saw in Rule 7 (Pursue what is meaningful [not what is expedient])–even Christ Himself was not willing to call upon his Father for a favour; furthermore, every day, the prayers of desperate people go unanswered. But maybe this is because the questions they contain are not phrased in the proper manner. Perhaps it’s not reasonable to ask God to break the rules of physics every time we fall by the wayside or make a serious error. Perhaps, in such times, you can’t put the cart before the horse and simply wish for your problem to be solved in some magical manner. Perhaps you could ask, instead, what you might have to do right now to increase your resolve, buttress your character, and find the strength to go on. Perhaps you could instead ask to see the truth.

On many occasions in our nearly thirty years of marriage my wife and I have had a disagreement–sometimes a deep disagreement. Our unity appeared to be broken, at some unknowably profound level, and we were not able to easily resolve the rupture by talking. We became trapped, instead, in emotional, angry and anxious argument. We agreed that when such circumstances arose we would separate, briefly: she to one room, me to another. This was often quite difficult, because it is hard to disengage in the heat of an argument, when anger generates the desire to defeat and win. But it seemed better than risking the consequences of a dispute that threatened to spiral out of control.

Alone, trying to calm down, we would each ask ourselves the same single question: What had we each done to contribute to the situation we were arguing about? However small, however distant … we had each made some error. Then we would reunite, and share the results of our questioning: Here’s how I was wrong ….

The problem with asking yourself such a question is that you must truly want the answer. And the problem with doing that is that you won’t like the answer . When you are arguing with someone, you want to be right, and you want the other person to be wrong. Then it’s them that has to sacrifice something and change, not you, and that’s much preferable. If it’s you that’s wrong and you that must change, then you have to reconsider yourself–your memories of the past, your manner of being in the present, and your plans for the future. Then you must resolve to improve and figure out how to do that. Then you actually have to do it. That’s exhausting. It takes repeated practice, to instantiate the new perceptions and make the new actions habitual. It’s much easier just not to realize, admit and engage. It’s much easier to turn your attention away from the truth and remain wilfully blind.

But it’s at such a point that you must decide whether you want to be right or you want to have peace.[232] You must decide whether to insist upon the absolute correctness of your view, or to listen and negotiate. You don’t get peace by being right. You just get to be right, while your partner gets to be wrong–defeated and wrong. Do that ten thousand times and your marriage will be over (or you will wish it was). To choose the alternative–to seek peace–you have to decide that you want the answer, more than you want to be right. That’s the way out of the prison of your stubborn preconceptions. That’s the prerequisite for negotiation. That’s to truly abide by principle of Rule 2 (Treat yourself like someone you are responsible for helping).

My wife and I learned that if you ask yourself such a question, and you genuinely desire the answer (no matter how disgraceful and terrible and shameful), then a memory of something you did that was stupid and wrong at some point in the generally not‑distant‑enough past will arise from the depths of your mind. Then you can go back to your partner and reveal why you’re an idiot, and apologize (sincerely) and that person can do the same for you, and then apologize (sincerely), and then you two idiots will be able to talk again. Perhaps that is true prayer: the question, “What have I done wrong, and what can I do now to set things at least a little bit more right?” But your heart must be open to the terrible truth. You must be receptive to that which you do not want to hear. When you decide to learn about your faults, so that they can be rectified, you open a line of communication with the source of all revelatory thought. Maybe that’s the same thing as consulting your conscience. Maybe that’s the same thing, in some manner, as a discussion with God.

It was in that spirit, with some paper in front of me, that I asked my question: What shall I do with my newfound pen of light? I asked, as if I truly wanted the answer. I waited for a reply. I was holding a conversation between two different elements of myself. I was genuinely thinking–or listening, in the sense described in Rule 9 (Assume that the person you are listening to might know something you don’t). That rule can apply as much to yourself as to others. It was me, of course, who asked the question–and it was me, of course, who replied. But those two me’s were not the same. I did not know what the answer would be. I was waiting for it to appear in the theatre of my imagination. I was waiting for the words to spring out of the void. How can a person think up something that surprises him? How can he already not know what he thinks? Where do new thoughts come from? Who or what thinks them?

Since I had just been given, of all things, a Pen of Light, which could write Illuminated Words in the darkness, I wanted to do the best thing I could with it. So, I asked the appropriate question–and, almost immediately, an answer revealed itself: Write down the words you want inscribed on your soul. I wrote that down. That seemed pretty good–a little on the romantic side, granted–but that was in keeping with the game. Then I upped the ante. I decided to ask myself the hardest questions I could think up, and await their answers. If you have a Pen of Light, after all, you should use it to answer Difficult Questions. Here was the first: What shall I do tomorrow? The answer came: The most good possible in the shortest period of time. That was satisfying, as well–conjoining an ambitious aim with the demands of maximal efficiency. A worthy challenge. The second question was in the same vein: What shall I do next year? Try to ensure that the good I do then will be exceeded only by the good I do the year after that. That seemed solid, too–a nice extension of the ambitions detailed in the previous answer. I told my friend that I was trying a serious experiment in writing with the pen he had given to me. I asked if I could read aloud what I had composed so far. The questions–and the answers–struck a chord with him, too. That was good. That was impetus to continue.

The next question ended the first set: What shall I do with my life? Aim for Paradise, and concentrate on today. Hah! I knew what that meant. It’s what Geppetto does in the Disney movie Pinocchio, when he wishes upon a star. The grandfatherly woodcarver lifts up his eyes to the twinkling diamond set high above the mundane world of day‑to‑day human concerns and articulates his deepest desire: that the marionette he created lose the strings by which he is manipulated by others and transform himself into a real boy. It’s also the central message of the Sermon on the Mount, as we saw in Rule 4 (Compare yourself to who you were yesterday …), but which deserve repeating here:


And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith? Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? For your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you (Matthew 6:28‑6:33).


What does all that mean? Orient yourself properly. Then–and only then–concentrate on the day. Set your sights at the Good, the Beautiful, and the True, and then focus pointedly and carefully on the concerns of each moment. Aim continually at Heaven while you work diligently on Earth. Attend fully to the future, in that manner, while attending fully to the present. Then you have the best chance of perfecting both.

I turned, then, from the use of time to my relationships with people, and wrote down and then read these questions and answers to my friend: What shall I do with my wife? Treat her as if she is the Holy Mother of God, so that she may give birth to the world‑redeeming hero. What shall I do with my daughter? Stand behind her, listen to her, guard her, train her mind, and let her know it’s OK if she wants to be a mother. What shall I do with my parents? Act such that your actions justify the suffering they endured. What shall I do with my son? Encourage him to be a true Son of God.

To honour your wife as a Mother of God is to notice and support the sacred element of her role as mother (not just of your children, but as such). A society that forgets this cannot survive. Hitler’s mother gave birth to Hitler, and Stalin’s mother to Stalin. Was something amiss in their crucial relationships? It seems likely, given the importance of the maternal role in establishing trust[233]–to take a single vital example. Perhaps the importance of their motherly duties, and of their relationship with their children, was not properly stressed; perhaps what the women were doing in their maternal guise was not properly regarded by husband, father and society alike. Who instead might a woman produce if she was treated properly, honourably and carefully? After all, the fate of the world rests on each new infant–tiny, fragile and threatened but, in time, capable of uttering the words and doing the deeds that maintain the eternal, delicate balance between chaos and order.

To stand behind my daughter? That’s to encourage her, in everything she wants courageously to do, but to include in that genuine appreciation for the fact of her femininity: to recognize the importance of having a family and children and to forego the temptation to denigrate or devalue that in comparison to accomplishment of personal ambition or career. It’s not for nothing that the Holy Mother and Infant is a divine image–as we just discussed. Societies that cease to honour that image–that cease to see that relationship as of transcendent and fundamental importance–also cease to be.

To act to justify the suffering of your parents is to remember all the sacrifices that all the others who lived before you (not least your parents) have made for you in all the course of the terrible past, to be grateful for all the progress that has been thereby made, and then to act in accordance with that remembrance and gratitude. People sacrificed immensely to bring about what we have now. In many cases, they literally died for it–and we should act with some respect for that fact.

To encourage my son to be a true Son of God? That is to want him above all to do what is right , and to strive to have his back while he is doing so. That is, I think, part of the sacrificial message: to value and support your son’s commitment to transcendent good above all things (including his worldly progress, so to speak, and his safety–and, perhaps, even his life).

I continued asking questions. The answers came within seconds. What shall I do with the stranger? Invite him into my house, and treat him like a brother, so that he may become one. That’s to extend the hand of trust to someone so that his or her best part can step forward and reciprocate. That’s to manifest the sacred hospitality that makes life between those who do not yet know each other possible. What shall I do with a fallen soul? Offer a genuine and cautious hand, but do not join it in the mire. That’s a good summary of what we covered in Rule 3 (Make friends with people who want the best for you). That’s an injunction to refrain both from casting pearls before swine, and from camouflaging your vice with virtue. What shall I do with the world? Conduct myself as if Being is more valuable than Non‑Being. Act so that you are not made bitter and corrupt by the tragedy of existence. That’s the essence of Rule 1 (Stand up straight with your shoulders back): confront the uncertainty of the world voluntarily, and with faith and courage.

How shall I educate my people? Share with them those things I regard as truly important. That’s Rule 8 (Tell the truth–or, at least, don’t lie). That is to aim for wisdom, to distill that wisdom into words, and to speak forth those words as if they matter, with true concern and care. That’s all relevant, as well, to the next question (and answer): What shall I do with a torn nation? Stitch it back together with careful words of truth. The importance of this injunction has, if anything, become clearer over the past few years: we are dividing, and polarizing, and drifting toward chaos. It is necessary, under such conditions, if we are to avoid catastrophe, for each of us to bring forward the truth, as we see it: not the arguments that justify our ideologies, not the machinations that further our ambitions, but the stark pure facts of our existence, revealed for others to see and contemplate, so that we can find common ground and proceed together.

What shall I do for God my Father? Sacrifice everything I hold dear to yet greater perfection. Let the deadwood burn off, so that new growth can prevail. That’s the terrible lesson of Cain and Abel, detailed in the discussion of meaning surrounding Rule 7. What shall I do with a lying man? Let him speak so that he may reveal himself. Rule 9 (Listen …) is once again relevant here, as is another section of the New Testament:


Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them (Matthew 7:16‑7:20).


The rot must be revealed before something sound can be put in its place, as was also indicated in Rule 7’s elaboration–and all of this is pertinent to understanding the following question and answer: How shall I deal with the enlightened one? Replace him with the true seeker of enlightenment. There is no enlightened one. There is only the one who is seeking further enlightenment. Proper Being is process, not a state; a journey, not a destination. It’s the continual transformation of what you know, through encounter with what you don’t know, rather than the desperate clinging to the certainty that is eternally insufficient in any case. That accounts for the importance of Rule 4 (Compare yourself …). Always place your becoming above your current being. That means it is necessary to recognize and accept your insufficiency, so that it can be continually rectified. That’s painful, certainly–but it’s a good deal.

The next few Q & A’s made another coherent group, focused this time on ingratitude: What shall I do when I despise what I have? Remember those who have nothing and strive to be grateful. Take stock of what is right in front of you. Consider Rule 12–somewhat tongue‑in‑cheek–(Pet a cat when you encounter one on the street). Consider, as well, that you may be blocked in your progress not because you lack opportunity, but because you have been too arrogant to make full use of what already lies in front of you. That’s Rule 6 (Set your house in perfect order before you criticize the world).

I spoke recently with a young man about such things. He had barely ever left his family and never his home state–but he journeyed to Toronto to attend one of my lectures and to meet with me at my home. He had isolated himself far too severely in the short course of his life to date and was badly plagued by anxiety. When we first met, he could hardly speak. He had nonetheless determined in the last year to do something about all of that. He started by taking on the lowly job of dishwasher. He decided to do it well, when he could have treated it contemptuously. Intelligent enough to be embittered by a world that did not recognize his gifts, he decided instead to accept with the genuine humility that is the true precursor to wisdom whatever opportunity he could find. Now he lives on his own. That’s better than living at home. Now he has some money. Not much. But more than none. And he earned it. Now he is confronting the social world, and benefitting from the ensuing conflict:


Knowledge frequently results

from knowing others,

but the man who is awakened,

has seen the uncarved block.

Others might be mastered by force,

but to master one’s self

requires the Tao.

He who has many material things,

may be described as rich,

but he who knows he has enough,

and is at one with the Tao,

might have enough of material things

and have self‑being as well.[234]


As long as my still‑anxious but self‑transforming and determined visitor continues down his current path, he will become far more competent and accomplished, and it won’t take long. But this will only be because he accepted his lowly state and was sufficiently grateful to take the first equally lowly step away from it. That’s far preferable to waiting, endlessly, for the magical arrival of Godot. That’s far preferable to arrogant, static, unchanging existence, while the demons of rage, resentment and unlived life gather around.

What shall I do when greed consumes me? Remember that it is truly better to give than to receive. The world is a forum of sharing and trading (that’s Rule 7, again), not a treasure‑house for the plundering. To give is to do what you can to make things better. The good in people will respond to that, and support it, and imitate it, and multiply it, and return it, and foster it, so that everything improves and moves forward.

What shall I do when I ruin my rivers? Seek for the living water and let it cleanse the Earth. I found this question, as well as its answer, particularly unexpected. It seems most associated with Rule 6 (Set your house …). Perhaps our environmental problems are not best construed technically. Maybe they’re best considered psychologically. The more people sort themselves out, the more responsibility they will take for the world around them and the more problems they will solve.[235] It is better, proverbially, to rule your own spirit than to rule a city. It’s easier to subdue an enemy without than one within. Maybe the environmental problem is ultimately spiritual. If we put ourselves in order, perhaps we will do the same for the world. Of course, what else would a psychologist think?

The next set were associated with proper response to crisis and exhaustion:

What shall I do when my enemy succeeds? Aim a little higher and be grateful for the lesson. Back to Matthew: “Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven” (5:43‑5:45). What does this mean? Learn, from the success of your enemies; listen (Rule 9) to their critique, so that you can glean from their opposition whatever fragments of wisdom you might incorporate, to your betterment; adopt as your ambition the creation of a world in which those who work against you see the light and wake up and succeed, so that the better at which you are aiming can encompass them, too.

What shall I do when I’m tired and impatient? Gratefully accept an outstretched helping hand. This is something with a twofold meaning. It’s an injunction, first, to note the reality of the limitations of individual being and, second, to accept and be thankful for the support of others–family, friends, acquaintances and strangers alike. Exhaustion and impatience are inevitable. There is too much to be done and too little time in which to do it. But we don’t have to strive alone, and there is nothing but good in distributing the responsibilities, cooperating in the efforts, and sharing credit for the productive and meaningful work thereby undertaken.

What shall I do with the fact of aging? Replace the potential of my youth with the accomplishments of my maturity.  This hearkens back to the discussion of friendship surrounding Rule 3, and the story of Socrates’ trial and death–which might be summarized, as follows: A life lived thoroughly justifies its own limitations . The young man with nothing has his possibilities to set against the accomplishments of his elders. It’s not clear that it’s necessarily a bad deal, for either. “An aged man is but a paltry thing,” wrote William Butler Yeats, “A tattered coat upon a stick, unless/Soul clap its hands and sing, and louder sing/For every tatter in its mortal dress ….”220

What shall I do with my infant’s death? Hold my other loved ones and heal their pain. It is necessary to be strong in the face of death, because death is intrinsic to life. It is for this reason that I tell my students: aim to be the person at your father’s funeral that everyone, in their grief and misery, can rely on. There’s a worthy and noble ambition: strength in the face of adversity. That is very different from the wish for a life free of trouble.

What shall I do in the next dire moment? Focus my attention on the next right move. The flood is coming. The flood is always coming. The apocalypse is always upon us. That’s why the story of Noah is archetypal. Things fall apart–we stressed that in the discussion surrounding Rule 10 (Be precise in your speech)–and the centre cannot hold. When everything has become chaotic and uncertain, all that remains to guide you might be the character you constructed, previously, by aiming up and concentrating on the moment at hand. If you have failed in that, you will fail in the moment of crisis, and then God help you.

That last set contained what I thought were the most difficult of all the questions I asked that night. The death of a child is, perhaps, the worst of catastrophes. Many relationships fail in the aftermath of such a tragedy. But dissolution in the face of such horror is not inevitable, although it is understandable. I have seen people immensely strengthen their remaining family bonds when someone close to them has died. I have seen them turn to those who remained and redouble their efforts to connect with them and support them. Because of that, all regained at least some of what had been so terribly torn away by death. We must therefore commiserate in our grief. We must come together in the face of the tragedy of existence. Our families can be the living room with the fireplace that is cozy and welcoming and warm while the storms of winter rage outside.

The heightened knowledge of fragility and mortality produced by death can terrify, embitter and separate. It can also awaken. It can remind those who grieve not to take the people who love them for granted. Once I did some chilling calculations regarding my parents, who are in their eighties. It was an example of the hated arithmetic we encountered in the discussion of Rule 5 (Do not let your children do anything that makes you dislike them)–and I walked through the equations so that I would stay properly conscious. I see my Mom and Dad about twice a year. We generally spend several weeks together. We talk on the phone in the interim between visits. But the life expectancy of people in their eighties is under ten years. That means I am likely to see my parents, if I am fortunate, fewer than twenty more times. That’s a terrible thing to know. But knowing it puts a stop to my taking those opportunities for granted.

The next set of questions–and answers–had to do with the development of character. What shall I say to a faithless brother? The King of the Damned is a poor judge of Being. It is my firm belief that the best way to fix the world–a handyman’s dream, if ever there was one–is to fix yourself, as we discussed in Rule 6. Anything else is presumptuous. Anything else risks harm, stemming from your ignorance and lack of skill. But that’s OK. There’s plenty to do, right where you are. After all, your specific personal faults detrimentally affect the world. Your conscious, voluntary sins (because no other word really works) makes things worse than they have to be. Your inaction, inertia and cynicism removes from the world that part of you that could learn to quell suffering and make peace. That’s not good. There are endless reasons to despair of the world, and to become angry and resentful and to seek revenge.

Failure to make the proper sacrifices, failure to reveal yourself, failure to live and tell the truth–all that weakens you. In that weakened state, you will be unable to thrive in the world, and you will be of no benefit to yourself or to others. You will fail and suffer, stupidly. That will corrupt your soul. How could it be otherwise? Life is hard enough when it is going well. But when it’s going badly? And I have learned through painful experience that nothing is going so badly that it can’t be made worse. This is why Hell is a bottomless pit. This is why Hell is associated with that aforementioned sin. In the most awful of cases, the terrible suffering of unfortunate souls becomes attributable, by their own judgment, to mistakes they made knowingly in the past: acts of betrayal, deception, cruelty, carelessness, cowardice and, most commonly of all, willful blindness. To suffer terribly and to know yourself as the cause: that is Hell. And once in Hell it is very easy to curse Being itself. And no wonder. But it’s not justifiable. And that’s why the King of the Damned is a poor judge of Being .

How do you build yourself into someone on whom you can rely, in the best of times and the worst–in peace and in war? How do you build for yourself the kind of character that will not ally itself, in its suffering and misery, with all who dwell in Hell? The questions and answers continued, all pertinent, in one way or another, to the rules I have outlined in this book:

     What shall I do to strengthen my spirit? Do not tell lies, or do what you despise.        

     What shall I do to ennoble my body? Use it only in the service of my soul.        

     What shall I do with the most difficult of questions? Consider them the gateway to the path of life.        

     What shall I do with the poor man’s plight? Strive through right example to lift his broken heart.        

     What shall I do when the great crowd beckons? Stand tall and utter my broken truths.        

And that was that. I still have my Pen of Light. I haven’t written anything with it since. Maybe I will again when the mood strikes and something wells up from deep below. But, even if I don’t, it helped me find the words to properly close this book.

I hope that my writing has proved useful to you. I hope it revealed things you knew that you did not know you knew. I hope the ancient wisdom I discussed provides you with strength. I hope it brightened the spark within you. I hope you can straighten up, sort out your family, and bring peace and prosperity to your community. I hope, in accordance with Rule 11 (Do not bother children when they are skateboarding), that you strengthen and encourage those who are committed to your care instead of protecting them to the point of weakness.

I wish you all the best, and hope that you can wish the best for others.

What will you write with your pen of light?





I lived through a tumultuous time when I was writing this book, to say the least. I had more than my fair share of reliable, competent, trustworthy people standing with me, however, and thank God for that. I would particularly like to thank my wife, Tammy, my great and good friend for almost fifty years. She has been an absolute pillar of honesty, stability, support, practical help, organization and patience during the years of writing that continued during anything and everything else that has happened in our lives, no matter how pressing or important. My daughter, Mikhaila, and my son, Julian, as well as my parents, Walter and Beverley, were also right there beside me, paying careful attention, discussing complicated issues with me, and aiding me in the organization of my thoughts, words and actions. The same is true of my brother‑in‑law, Jim Keller, computer chip architect extraordinaire, and my always reliable and adventurous sister, Bonnie. The friendship of Wodek Szemberg and Estera Bekier has proved invaluable to me, in many ways, for many years, as has the behind‑the‑scenes and subtle support of Professor William Cunningham. Dr. Norman Doidge went beyond the call of duty writing and revising the foreword to this book, which took far more effort than I had originally estimated, and the friendship and warmth he and his wife, Karen, continually provide has been very much appreciated by my entire family. It was a pleasure to collaborate with Craig Pyette, my editor at Random House Canada. Craig’s careful attention to detail and ability to diplomatically rein in excess bursts of passion (and sometimes irritation) in my many drafts made for a much more measured and balanced book.

Gregg Hurwitz, novelist, screen‑writer and friend, used many of my rules for life in his bestseller Orphan X , well before my book was written, which was a great compliment and indicator of their potential value and public appeal. Gregg also volunteered as a dedicated, thorough, viciously incisive and comically cynical editor and commentator while I was writing and editing. He helped me cut unnecessary verbiage (some of it at least) and stay on the narrative track. Gregg also recommended Ethan van Scriver, who provided the fine illustrations that begin each chapter, and I would like to acknowledge him for that, as well as tipping my hat to Ethan himself, whose drawings add a necessary touch of lightness, whimsy and warmth to what might otherwise have been a too‑dark and dramatic tome.

Finally, I would like to thank Sally Harding, my agent, and the fine people she works with at CookeMcDermid. Without Sally, this book would have never been written.


[1] Some argue–mistakenly–that Freud (often mentioned in these pages) contributed to our current longing for a culture, schools and institutions that are “non‑judgmental.” It is true that he recommended that when psychoanalysts listen to their patients in therapy, they be tolerant, empathic, and not voice critical, moralistic judgments. But this was for the express purposes of helping patients feel comfortable in being totally honest, and not diminish their problems. This encouraged self‑reflection, and allowed them to explore warded off feelings, wishes, even shameful anti‑social urges. It also–and this was the masterstroke–allowed them to discover their own unconscious conscience (and its judgments), and their own harsh self‑criticism of their “lapses,” and their own unconscious guilt which they had often hidden from themselves, but which often formed the basis of their low self‑esteem, depression and anxiety. If anything, Freud showed that we are both more immoral and more moral than we are aware of. This kind of “non‑judgmentalism,” in therapy , is a powerful and liberating technique or tactic–an ideal attitude when you want to better understand yourself. But Freud never argued (as do some who want all culture to become one huge group therapy session) that one can live one’s entire life without ever making judgments, or without morality. In fact, his point in Civilization and its Discontents is that civilization only arises when some restraining rules and morality are in place.


[2] Solzhenitsyn, A.I. (1975). The Gulag Archipelago 1918‑1956: An experiment in literary investigation (Vol. 2). (T.P. Whitney, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row, p. 626.


[3] The yin/yang symbol is the second part of the more comprehensive five‑part tajitu , a diagram representing both the original absolute unity and its division into the multiplicity of the observed world. This is discussed in more detail in Rule 2, below, as well as elsewhere in the book.


[4] I use the term Being (with a capital “B”) in part because of my exposure to the ideas of the 20th‑century German philosopher Martin Heidegger. Heidegger tried to distinguish between reality, as conceived objectively, and the totality of human experience (which is his “Being”). Being (with a capital “B”) is what each of us experiences, subjectively, personally and individually, as well as what we each experience jointly with others. As such, it includes emotions, drives, dreams, visions and revelations, as well as our private thoughts and perceptions. Being is also, finally, something that is brought into existence by action, so its nature is to an indeterminate degree a consequence of our decisions and choices–something shaped by our hypothetically free will. Construed in this manner, Being is (1) not something easily and directly reducible to the material and objective and (2) something that most definitely requires its own term, as Heidegger labored for decades to indicate.


[5] If you want to do some serious thinking about lobsters, this is a good place to start: Corson, T. (2005). The secret life of lobsters: How fishermen and scientists are unraveling the mysteries of our favorite crustacean . New York: Harper Perennial.


[6] Schjelderup‑Ebbe, & T. (1935). Social behavior of birds . Clark University Press. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1935‑19907‑007; see also Price, J. S., & Sloman, L. (1987). “Depression as yielding behavior: An animal model based on Schjelderup‑Ebbe’s pecking order.” Ethology and Sociobiology , 8, 85–98.


[7] Sapolsky, R. M. (2004). “Social status and health in humans and other animals.”Annual Review of Anthropology, 33 , 393–418.


[8] Rutishauser, R. L., Basu, A. C., Cromarty, S. I., & Kravitz, E. A. (2004). “Long‑term consequences of agonistic interactions between socially naive juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus).” The Biological Bulletin, 207 , 183–7.


[9] Kravitz, E.A. (2000). “Serotonin and aggression: Insights gained from a lobster model system and speculations on the role of amine neurons in a complex behavior.”Journal of Comparative Physiology, 186 , 221‑238.


[10] Huber, R., & Kravitz, E. A. (1995). “A quantitative analysis of agonistic behavior in juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus L. )”. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 46, 72–83.


[11] Yeh S‑R, Fricke RA, Edwards DH (1996) “The effect of social experience on serotonergic modulation of the escape circuit of crayfish.”Science, 271 , 366–369.


[12] Huber, R., Smith, K., Delago, A., Isaksson, K., & Kravitz, E. A. (1997). “Serotonin and aggressive motivation in crustaceans: Altering the decision to retreat.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94 , 5939–42.


[13] Antonsen, B. L., & Paul, D. H. (1997). “Serotonin and octopamine elicit stereotypical agonistic behaviors in the squat lobster Munida quadrispina (Anomura, Galatheidae ).” Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, 181 , 501–510.


[14] Credit Suisse (2015, Oct). Global Wealth Report 2015 , p. 11. Retrieved from https://publications.credit‑suisse.com/tasks/render/file/?fileID=F2425415‑DCA7‑80B8‑EAD989AF9341D47E


[15] Fenner, T., Levene, M., & Loizou, G. (2010). “Predicting the long tail of book sales: Unearthing the power‑law exponent.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, 389 , 2416–2421.


[16] de Solla Price, D. J. (1963). Little science, big science . New York: Columbia University Press.


[17] As theorized by Wolff, J.O. & Peterson, J.A. (1998). “An offspring‑defense hypothesis for territoriality in female mammals.” Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, 10 , 227‑239; Generalized to crustaceans by Figler, M.H., Blank, G.S. & Peek, H.V.S (2001). “Maternal territoriality as an offspring defense strategy in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Girard ).” Aggressive Behavior, 27 , 391‑403.


[18] Waal, F. B. M. de (2007). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes . Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; Waal, F. B. M. de (1996). Good natured: The origins of right and wrong in humans and other animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


[19] Bracken‑Grissom, H. D., Ahyong, S. T., Wilkinson, R. D., Feldmann, R. M., Schweitzer, C. E., Breinholt, J. W., Crandall, K. A. (2014). “The emergence of lobsters: Phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group.” Systematic Biology, 63 , 457–479.


[20] A brief summary: Ziomkiewicz‑Wichary, A. (2016). “Serotonin and dominance.” In T.K. Shackelford & V.A. Weekes‑Shackelford (Eds.). Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science , DOI 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑16999‑6_1440‑1. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310586509_Serotonin_and_Dominance


[21] Janicke, T., Häderer, I. K., Lajeunesse, M. J., & Anthes, N. (2016). “Darwinian sex roles confirmed across the animal kingdom.” Science Advances, 2 , e1500983. Retrieved from http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/2/e1500983


[22] Steenland, K., Hu, S., & Walker, J. (2004). “All‑cause and cause‑specific mortality by socioeconomic status among employed persons in 27 US states, 1984–1997.” American Journal of Public Health, 94 , 1037–1042.


[23] Crockett, M. J., Clark, L., Tabibnia, G., Lieberman, M. D., & Robbins, T. W. (2008). “Serotonin modulates behavioral reactions to unfairness.” Science, 320 , 1739.


[24] McEwen, B. (2000). “Allostasis and allostatic load implications for neuropsychopharmacology.” Neuropsychopharmacology, 22 , 108–124.


[25] Salzer, H. M. (1966). “Relative hypoglycemia as a cause of neuropsychiatric illness.” Journal of the National Medical Association, 58 , 12–17.


[26] Peterson J.B., Pihl, R.O., Gianoulakis, C., Conrod, P., Finn, P.R., Stewart, S.H., LeMarquand, D.G. Bruce, K.R. (1996). “Ethanol‑induced change in cardiac and endogenous opiate function and risk for alcoholism.” Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 20 , 1542‑1552.


[27] Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., & Piacentini, J. C. (1999). “A developmental psychopathology model of childhood traumatic stress and intersection with anxiety disorders.” Biological Psychiatry, 46 , 1542–1554.


[28] Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do . New York: Wiley‑Blackwell.


[29] Ibid.


[30] Janoff‑Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions: Towards a new psychology of trauma . New York: The Free Press.


[31] Weisfeld, G. E., & Beresford, J. M. (1982). “Erectness of posture as an indicator of dominance or success in humans.” Motivation and Emotion, 6 , 113–131.


[32] Kleinke, C. L., Peterson, T. R., & Rutledge, T. R. (1998). “Effects of self‑generated facial expressions on mood.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 , 272–279.


[33] Tamblyn, R., Tewodros, E., Huang, A., Winslade, N. & Doran, P. (2014). “The incidence and determinants of primary nonadherence with prescribed medication in primary care: a cohort study.” Annals of Internal Medicine, 160 , 441‑450.


[34] I outlined this in some detail in Peterson, J.B. (1999). Maps of meaning: The architecture of belief . New York: Routledge.


[35] Van Strien, J.W., Franken, I.H.A. & Huijding, J. (2014). “Testing the snake‑detection hypothesis: Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8 , 691‑697. For a more general discussion, see Ledoux, J. (1998). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life . New York: Simon & Schuster.


[36] For the classic treatise on this issue see Gibson, J.J. (1986). An ecological approach to visual perception. New York: Psychology Press. See also Floel, A., Ellger, T., Breitenstein, C. & Knecht, S. (2003). “Language perception activates the hand motor cortex: implications for motor theories of speech perception.” European Journal of Neuroscience, 18 , 704‑708, for a discussion of the relationship between speech and action. For a more general review of the relationship between action and perception, see Pulvermüller, F., Moseley, R.L., Egorova, N., Shebani, Z. & Boulenger, V. (2014). “Motor cognition–motor semantics: Action perception theory of cognition and communication.” Neuropsychologia, 55 , 71‑84.öel, A., Ellger, T., Breitenstein, C. & Knecht, S. (2003). “Language perception activates the hand motor cortex: Implications for motor theories of speech perception.” European Journal of Neuroscience, 18 , 704‑708; Fadiga, L., Craighero, L. & Olivier, E (2005). “Human motor cortex excitability during the perception of others’ action.” Current Opinions in Neurobiology, 15 , 213‑218; Palmer, C.E., Bunday, K.L., Davare, M. & Kilner, J.M. (2016). “A causal role for primary motor cortex in perception of observed actions.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28 , 2021‑2029.


[37] Barrett, J.L. (2004). Why would anyone believe in God? Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.


[38] For a decent review, see Barrett, J.L. & Johnson, A.H. (2003). “The role of control in attributing intentional agency to inanimate objects.” Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3 , 208‑217.


[39] I would also most highly recommend, in this regard, this book by C.G. Jung’s most outstanding student/colleague, Neumann, E. (1955). The Great Mother: An analysis of the archetype . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


[40] https://www.dol.gov/wb/stats/occ_gender_share_em_1020_txt.htm


[41] Muller, M.N., Kalhenberg, S.M., Thompson, M.E. & Wrangham, R.W. (2007). “Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees.” Proceedings of the Royal Society (B), 274 , 1009‑1014.


[42] For a host of interesting statistics derived from the analysis of his dating site, OkCupid, see Rudder, C. (2015). Dataclysm: Love, sex, race & identity . New York: Broadway Books. It is also the case on such sites that a tiny minority of individuals get the vast majority of interested inquiries (another example of the Pareto distribution).


[43] Wilder, J.A., Mobasher, Z. & Hammer, M.F. (2004). “Genetic evidence for unequal effective population sizes of human females and males.” Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21 , 2047‑2057.


[44] Miller, G. (2001). The mating mind: How sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. New York: Anchor.


[45] Pettis, J. B. (2010). “Androgyny BT.” In D. A. Leeming, K. Madden, & S. Marlan (Eds.). Encyclopedia of psychology and religion (pp. 35‑36). Boston, MA: Springer US.


[46] It is of great interest, in this regard, that the five‑part taijitu (referred to in Chapter 1 and the source of the simpler yin/yang symbol) expresses the origin of the cosmos as, first, originating in the undifferentiated absolute, then dividing into yin and yang (chaos/order, feminine/masculine), and then into the five agents (wood, fire, earth, metal, water) and then, simply put, “the ten thousand things.” The Star of David (chaos/order, feminine/masculine) gives rise in the same way to the four basic elements: fire, air, water and earth (out of which everything else is built). A similar hexagram is used by the Hindus. The downward triangle symbolizes Shakti, the feminine; the upward triangle, Shiva, the masculine. The two components are known as om and hrim in Sanskrit. Remarkable examples of conceptual parallelism.


[47] Goldberg, E. (2003). The executive brain: Frontal lobes and the civilized mind . New York: Oxford University Press.


[48] For the classic works, see Campbell, D.T. & Fiske, D.W. (1959). “Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait‑multimethod matrix.” Psychological Bulletin , 56, 81‑105. A similar idea was developed in Wilson, E.O. (1998). Consilience: The unity of knowledge . New York: Knopf. It’s also why we have five senses, so we can “pentangulate” our way through the world, with qualitatively separate modes of perception operating and cross‑checking simultaneously.


[49] Headland, T. N., & Greene, H. W. (2011). “Hunter‑gatherers and other primates as prey, predators, and competitors of snakes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 108 , 1470–1474.


[50] Or, in another interpretation, He split the original androgynous individual into two parts, male and female. According to this line of thinking, Christ, the “second Adam,” is also the original Man, before the sexual subdivision. The symbolic meaning of this should be clear to those who have followed the argument thus far.


[51] Keeley, L. H. (1996). War before civilization: The myth of the peaceful savage . New York: Oxford University Press.


[52] “Gradually it was disclosed to me that the line separating good and evil passes not through states, nor between classes, nor between political parties either–but right through every human heart–and through all human hearts. This line shifts. Inside us, it oscillates with the years. And even within hearts overwhelmed by evil, one small bridgehead of good is retained. And even in the best of all hearts, there remains … an unuprooted small corner of evil. Since then I have come to understand the truth of all the religions of the world: They struggle with the evil inside a human being (inside every human being). It is impossible to expel evil from the world in its entirety, but it is possible to constrict it within each person.” Solzhenitsyn, A.I. (1975). The Gulag Archipelago 1918‑1956: An experiment in literary investigation (Vol. 2). (T.P. Whitney, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row, p. 615.


[53] The best exploration of this I have ever encountered is to be found in the brilliant documentary about the underground cartoonist Robert Crumb, entitled Crumb , directed by Terry Zwigoff (1995), released by Sony Pictures Classic. This documentary will tell you more than you want to know about resentment, deceit, arrogance, hatred for mankind, sexual shame, the devouring mother and the tyrannical father.


[54] Bill, V.T. (1986). Chekhov: The silent voice of freedom . Allied Books, Ltd.


[55] Costa, P.T., Teracciano, A. & McCrae, R.R. (2001). “Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 , 322‑331.


[56] Isbell, L. (2011). The fruit, the tree and the serpent: Why we see so well. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; see also Hayakawa, S., Kawai, N., Masataka, N., Luebker, A., Tomaiuolo, F., & Caramazza, A. (2011). “The influence of color on snake detection in visual search in human children.” Scientific Reports, 1 , 1‑4.


[57] Virgin and Child (c. 1480) by Geertgen tot Sint Jans (c. 1465‑ c. 1495) provides an outstanding example of this, with Mary, the Christ Child and the serpent additionally superimposed on a background of medieval musical instruments (and the infant Christ playing the role of conductor).


[58] Osorio, D., Smith, A.C., Vorobyev, M. & Buchanan‑Smieth, H.M. (2004). “Detection of fruit and the selection of primate visual pigments for color vision.” The American Naturalist, 164 , 696‑708.


[59] Macrae, N. (1992). John von Neumann : The scientific genius who pioneered the modern computer, game theory, nuclear deterrence, and much more . New York: Pantheon Books.


[60] Wittman, A. B., & Wall, L. L. (2007). “The evolutionary origins of obstructed labor: bipedalism, encephalization, and the human obstetric dilemma.” Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 62 , 739–748.


[61] Other explanations exist: Dunsworth, H. M., Warrener, A. G., Deacon, T., Ellison, P. T., & Pontzer, H. (2012). “Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 15212–15216.


[62] Heidel, A. (1963). The Babylonian Genesis: The story of the creation . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


[63] Salisbury, J. E. (1997). Perpetua’s passion: The death and memory of a young Roman woman . New York: Routledge.


[64] Pinker, S. (2011). The better angels of our nature: Why violence has declined . New York: Viking Books.


[65] Nietzsche, F.W. & Kaufmann, W.A. (1982). The portable Nietzsche . New York: Penguin Classics (Maxims and Arrows 12).


[66] Peterson, J.B. (1999). Maps of meaning: The architecture of belief . New York: Routledge, p. 264.


[67] Miller, G. (2016, November 3). Could pot help solve the U.S. opioid epidemic? Science . Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/11/could‑pot‑help‑solve‑us‑opioid‑epidemic


[68] Barrick, M. R., Stewart, G. L., Neubert, M. J., and Mount, M. K. (1998). “Relating member ability and personality to work‑team processes and team effectiveness.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 83 , 377‑391; for a similar effect with children, see Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). “When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior.” American Psychologist, 54 , 755–764.


[69] McCord, J. & McCord, W. (1959). “A follow‑up report on the Cambridge‑Somerville youth study.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 32 , 89‑96.


[70] See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQvvmT3ab80 (from MoneyBART : Episode 3, Season 23 of The Simpsons ).


[71] Rogers outlined six conditions for constructive personality change to occur. The second of these was the client’s “state of incongruence,” which is, roughly speaking, knowledge that something is wrong and has to change. See Rogers, C. R. (1957). “The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change.” Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21 , 95–103.


[72] Poffenberger, A.T. (1930). “The development of men of science.” Journal of Social Psychology, 1 , 31‑47.


[73] Taylor, S.E. & Brown, J. (1988). “Illusion and well‑being: A social psychological perspective on mental health.” Psychological Bulletin, 103 , 193–210.


[74] The word sin is derived from the Greek ἁμαρτάνειν (hamartánein ), which means to miss the mark . Connotations: error of judgment; fatal flaw. See http://biblehub.com/greek/264.htm


[75] See Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception . Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


[76] Simons, D. J., & Chabris, C. F. (1999). “Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events.” Perception, 28 , 1059–1074.


[77] http://www.dansimons.com/videos.html


[78] Azzopardi, P. & Cowey, A. (1993). “Preferential representation of the fovea in the primary visual cortex.” Nature, 361 , 719‑721.


[79] see http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/thomas/gospelthomas113.html


[80] Nietzsche, F. (2003). Beyond good and evil . Fairfield, IN: 1st World Library/Literary Society, p. 67.


[81] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/21/nyregion/21yitta.html


[82] Balaresque, P., Poulet, N., Cussat‑Blanc, S., Gerard, P., Quintana‑Murci, L., Heyer, E., & Jobling, M. A. (2015). “Y‑chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations.” European Journal of Human Genetics, 23 , 1413–1422.


[83] Moore, L. T., McEvoy, B., Cape, E., Simms, K., & Bradley, D. G. (2006). “A Y‑chromosome signature of hegemony in Gaelic Ireland.” American Journal of Human Genetics, 78 , 334–338.


[84] Zerjal, T., Xue, Y., Bertorelle, G., Wells et al. (2003). “The genetic legacy of the Mongols.” American Journal of Human Genetics, 72 , 717–21.


[85] Jones, E. (1953). The life and work of Sigmund Freud (Vol. I). New York: Basic Books. p. 5.


[86] A decent brief summary of such ideas is provided here: https://www.britannica.com/art/noble‑savage


[87] I draw here and will many times again in the course of this book on my clinical experience (as I have, already, on my personal history). I have tried to keep the moral of the stories intact, while disguising the details for the sake of the privacy of those involved. I hope I got the balance right.


[88] Well reviewed in Roberts, B. W., & Mroczek, D. (2008). “Personality trait change in adulthood.” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17 , 31–35.


[89] For a thorough, empirically‑grounded and reliable discussion of such matters, see Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.


[90] Goodall, J. (1990). Through a window: My thirty years with the chimpanzees of Gombe . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.


[91] Finch, G. (1943). “The bodily strength of chimpanzees.” Journal of Mammalogy, 24 , 224‑228.


[92] Goodall, J. (1972). In the shadow of man . New York: Dell.


[93] Wilson, M.L. et al. (2014). “Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts.” Nature, 513 , 414‑417.


[94] Goodall, J. (1990). Through a window: My thirty years with the chimpanzees of Gombe . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, pp. 128–129.


[95] Chang, I. (1990). The rape of Nanking . New York: Basic Books.


[96] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2013). Global study on homicide . Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf


[97] Thomas, E.M. (1959). The harmless people. New York: Knopf.


[98] Roser, M. (2016). Ethnographic and archaeological evidence on violent deaths . Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/ethnographic‑and‑archaeological‑evidence‑on‑violent‑deaths/


[99] Ibid; also Brown, A. (2000). The Darwin wars: The scientific battle for the soul of man . New York: Pocket Books.


[100] Keeley, L.H. (1997). War before civilization: The myth of the peaceful savage . Oxford University Press, USA.


[101] Carson, S.H., Peterson, J.B. & Higgins, D.M. (2005). “Reliability, validity and factor structure of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire.” Creativity Research Journal, 17 , 37‑50.


[102] Stokes, P.D. (2005). Creativity from constraints: The psychology of breakthrough . New York: Springer.


[103] Wrangham, R. W., & Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic males: Apes and the origins of human violence . New York: Houghton Mifflin.


[104] Peterson, J.B. & Flanders, J. (2005). Play and the regulation of aggression. In Tremblay, R.E., Hartup, W.H. & Archer, J. (Eds.). Developmental origins of aggression . (pp. 133‑157). New York: Guilford Press; Nagin, D., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). “Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and non‑violent juvenile delinquency.” Child Development, 70, 1181‑1196.


[105] Sullivan, M.W. (2003). “Emotional expression of young infants and children.” Infants and Young Children, 16 , 120‑142.


[106] See BF Skinner Foundation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGazyH6fQQ4


[107] Glines, C.B. (2005). “Top secret World War II bat and bird bomber program.” Aviation History, 15 , 38‑44.


[108] Flasher, J. (1978). “Adultism.” Adolescence, 13 , 517‑523; Fletcher, A. (2013). Ending discrimination against young people . Olympia, WA: CommonAction Publishing.


[109] de Waal, F. (1998). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


[110] Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions . New York: Oxford University Press.


[111] Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Séguin, J. R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P. D., Boivin, M., … Japel, C. (2004). “Physical aggression during early childhood: trajectories and predictors.” Pediatrics, 114 , 43‑50.


[112] Krein, S. F., & Beller, A. H. (1988). “Educational attainment of children from single‑parent families: Differences by exposure, gender, and race.” Demography, 25 , 221; McLoyd, V. C. (1998). “Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development.” The American Psychologist, 53 , 185–204; Lin, Y.‑C., & Seo, D.‑C. (2017). “Cumulative family risks across income levels predict deterioration of children’s general health during childhood and adolescence.” PLOS ONE, 12(5) , e0177531. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177531; Amato, P. R., & Keith, B. (1991). “Parental divorce and the well‑being of children: A meta‑analysis.” Psychological Bulletin, 110 , 26–46.


[113] Eric Harris’s diary: http://melikamp.com/features/eric.shtml


[114] Goethe, J.W. (1979). Faust, part one (P. Wayne, Trans.). London: Penguin Books. p. 75.


[115] Goethe, J.W. (1979). Faust, part two (P. Wayne, Trans.). London: Penguin Books. p. 270.


[116] Tolstoy, L. (1887‑1983). Confessions (D. Patterson, Trans.). New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 57‑58.


[117] The Guardian (2016, June 14). 1000 mass shootings in 1260 days: this is what America’s gun crisis looks like . Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us‑news/ng‑interactive/2015/oct/02/mass‑shootings‑america‑gun‑violence


[118] The words of Eric Harris: https://schoolshooters.info/sites/default/files/harris_journal_1.3.pdf


[119] Cited in Kaufmann, W. (1975). Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre . New York: Meridian, pp. 130‑131.


[120] See Solzhenitsyn, A.I. (1975). The Gulag Archipelago 1918‑1956: An experiment in literary investigation (Vol. 2). (T.P. Whitney, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row.


[121] Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgement of the child . London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Company; see also Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams and imitation in childhood . New York: W.W. Norton and Company.


[122] Franklin, B. (1916). Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin . Rahway, New Jersey: The Quinn & Boden Company Press. Retrieved from https://www.gutenberg.org/files/20203/20203‑h/20203‑h.htm


[123] See Xenophon’s Apology of Socrates, section 23, retrieved at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0212%3Atext%3DApol.%3Asection%3D23


[124] And this is all true, note, whether there is–or is not–actually such a powerful figure, “in the sky” :)


[125] Ibid., section 2.


[126] Ibid., section 3.


[127] Ibid,, section 8.


[128] Ibid., section 4.


[129] Ibid., section 12.


[130] Ibid., section 13.


[131] Ibid., section 14.


[132] Ibid., section 7.


[133] Ibid.


[134] Ibid., section 8.


[135] Ibid.


[136] Ibid., section 33.


[137] Goethe, J.W. (1979b). Faust, part two (P. Wayne, Trans.). London: Penguin Books. p. 270.


[138] There are very useful commentaries on every Biblical verse at http://biblehub.com/commentaries/ and specifically on this verse at http://biblehub.com/commentaries/genesis/4‑7.htm


[139] “For whence/ But from the author of all ill could spring/ So deep a malice, to confound the race/ Of mankind in one root, and Earth with Hell/ To mingle and involve, done all to spite /The great Creator?” Milton, J. (1667). Paradise Lost, Book 2, 381–385. Retrieved from https://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_2/text.shtml


[140] Jung, C.G. (1969). Aion: Researches into the phenomenology of the self (Vol. 9: Part II, Collected Works of C. G. Jung): Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (chapter 5).


[141] http://www.acolumbinesite.com/dylan/writing.php


[142] Schapiro, J.A., Glynn, S.M., Foy, D.W. & Yavorsky, M.A. (2002). “Participation in war‑zone atrocities and trait dissociation among Vietnam veterans with combat‑related PTSD.Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 3 , 107‑114; Yehuda, R., Southwick, S.M. & Giller, E.L. (1992). “Exposure to atrocities and severity of chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans.” American Journal of Psychiatry, 149 , 333‑336.


[143] See Harpur, T. (2004). The pagan Christ: recovering the lost light . Thomas Allen Publishers. There is also a discussion of this in Peterson, J.B. (1999). Maps of meaning: The architecture of belief . New York: Routledge.


[144] Lao‑Tse (1984). The tao te ching . (1984) (S. Rosenthal, Trans.). Verse 64: Staying with the mystery. Retrieved from https://terebess.hu/english/tao/rosenthal.html#Kap64.


[145] In keeping with this observation is the fact that the word Set is an etymological precursor to the word Satan. See Murdock, D.M. (2009). Christ in Egypt: the Horus‑Jesus connection . Seattle, WA: Stellar House, p. 75.


[146] For anyone who thinks this is somehow unrealistic, given the concrete material reality and genuine suffering that is associated with privation, I would once again recommend Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago , which contains a series of exceptionally profound discussions about proper ethical behavior and its exaggerated rather than diminished importance in situations of extreme want and suffering.


[147] Jung, C.G. (1969). Aion: Researches into the phenomenology of the self (Vol. 9: Part II, Collected Works of C. G. Jung): Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.


[148] Dobbs, B.J.T. (2008). The foundations of Newton’s alchemy . New York: Cambridge University Press.


[149] Ephesians 2:8–2:9 reads, for example (in the King James Version): For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. A similar sentiment is echoed in Romans 9:15–9:16: I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy. The New International Version restates 9:16 this way: It does not, therefore, depend on human desire or effort, but on God’s mercy.


[150] Nietzsche, F.W. & Kaufmann, W.A. (1982). The portable Nietzsche . New York: Penguin Classics. Contains, among others, Nietzsche’s Twilight of the idols and the anti‑Christ: or how to philosophize with a hammer .


[151] Nietzsche, F. (1974). The gay science (Kaufmann, W., Trans.). New York: Vintage, pp. 181‑182.


[152] Nietzsche, F. (1968). The will to power (Kaufmann, W., Trans.). New York: Vintage, p. 343.


[153] Dostoevsky, F.M. (2009). The grand inquisitor . Merchant Books.


[154] Nietzsche, F. (1954). Beyond good and evil (Zimmern, H., Trans.). In W.H. Wright (Ed.), The Philosophy of Nietzsche (pp. 369‑616). New York: Modern Library, p. 477.


[155] “Let our conjectures, our theories, die in our stead! We may still learn to kill our theories instead of killing each other …. [It] is perhaps more than a utopian dream that one day may see the victory of the attitude (it is the rational or the scientific attitude) of eliminating our theories, our opinions, by rational criticism, instead of eliminating each other.” From Popper, K. (1977). “Natural selection and the emergence of mind.” Lecture delivered at Darwin College, Cambridge, UK. See http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/philosophers/popper/natural_selection_and_the_emergence_of_mind.html


[156] This is detailed in the introduction to Peterson, J.B. (1999). Maps of meaning: the architecture of belief . New York: Routledge.


[157] Adler, A. (1973). “Life‑lie and responsibility in neurosis and psychosis: a contribution to melancholia.” In P. Radin (Trans.). The practice and theory of Individual Psychology . Totawa, N.J.: Littlefield, Adams & Company.


[158] Milton, J. (1667). Paradise Lost . Book 1: 40‑48. Retrieved from https://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_1/text.shtml


[159] Milton, J. (1667). Paradise Lost . Book 1: 249‑253. Retrieved from https://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_1/text.shtml


[160] Milton, J. (1667). Paradise Lost . Book 1: 254‑255. Retrieved from https://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_1/text.shtml


[161] Milton, J. (1667). Paradise Lost . Book 1: 261‑263.Retrieved from https://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_1/text.shtml


[162] This is detailed in to Peterson, J.B. (1999). Maps of meaning: The architecture of belief . New York: Routledge.


[163] Hitler, A. (1925/2017). Mein kampf (M. Roberto, Trans.). Independently Published, pp. 172‑173.


[164] Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G., Lewis, I.A. & Smith, C. (1990). “Sexual abuse in a national survey of adult men and women: prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors.” Child Abuse & Neglect, 14 , 19‑28.


[165] Here, again, I have disguised many of the details of this case, to maintain the privacy of those involved, while attempting to maintain the central meaning of the events.


[166] Rind, B., Tromovitch, P. & Bauserman, R. (1998). “A meta‑analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples.” Psychological Bulletin, 124 , 22‑53.


[167] Loftus, E.F. (1997). “Creating false memories.” Scientific American, 277 , 70‑75.


[168] Taken from Rogers, C. R. (1952). “Communication: its blocking and its facilitation.” ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 9 , 83‑88.


[169] See Gibson, J.J. (1986). An ecological approach to visual perception, New York: Psychology Press, for the classic treatise on this issue. See also Floel, A., Ellger, T., Breitenstein, C. & Knecht, S. (2003). “Language perception activates the hand motor cortex: implications for motor theories of speech perception.” European Journal of Neuroscience, 18 , 704‑708 for a discussion of the relationship between speech and action. For a more general review of the relationship between action and perception, see Pulvermüller, F., Moseley, R.L., Egorova, N., Shebani, Z. & Boulenger, V. (2014). “Motor cognition–motor semantics: Action perception theory of cognition and communication.” Neuropsychologia, 55 , 71‑84.


[170] The strategy of speaking to individuals is not only vital to the delivery of any message, it’s a useful antidote to fear of public speaking. No one wants to be stared at by hundreds of unfriendly, judgmental eyes. However, almost everybody can talk to just one attentive person. So, if you have to deliver a speech (another terrible phrase) then do that. Talk to the individuals in the audience–and don’t hide: not behind the podium, not with downcast eyes, not by speaking too quietly or mumbling, not by apologizing for your lack of brilliance or preparedness, not behind ideas that are not yours, and not behind clichés.


[171] Cardinali, L., Frassinetti, F., Brozzoli, C., Urquizar, C., Roy, A.C. & Farnè, A. (2009). “Tool‑use induces morphological updating of the body schema.” Current Biology, 12 , 478‑479.


[172] This is why, for example, it has taken us far longer than we originally assumed to make robots that could function autonomously in the world. The problem of perception is far more difficult than our immediate effortless access to our own perceptions predisposes us to infer. In fact, the problem of perception is so difficult that it stalled the early progress of artificial intelligence almost fatally (from the perspective of that time), as we discovered that disembodied abstract reason could not solve even simple real‑world problems. Pioneers such as Rodney Brooks proposed in the late 1980s and early ’90s that bodies in action were necessary preconditions to the parsing of the world into manageable things, and the AI revolution regained its confidence and momentum.


[173] Bernhardt, P.C., Dabbs, J.M. Jr., Fielden, J.A. & Lutter, C.D. (1998). “Testosterone changes during vicarious experiences of winning and losing among fans at sporting events.” Physiology & Behavior, 65 , 59‑62.


[174] Some, but not all of this, is detailed in Gray, J. & McNaughton, N. (2003). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septal‑hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press. See also Peterson, J.B. (2013). “Three forms of meaning and the management of complexity.” In T. Proulx, K.D. Markman & M.J. Lindberg (Eds.). The psychology of meaning (pp. 17‑48). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association; Peterson, J.B. & Flanders, J.L. (2002). “Complexity management theory: Motivation for ideological rigidity and social conflict.” Cortex, 38 , 429‑458.


[175] Yeats, W.B. (1933) The Second Coming. In R.J. Finneran (Ed.). The poems of W.B. Yeats: A new edition . New York: MacMillan, p. 158.


[176] The recording is available at Peterson, J.B. (2002). Slaying the Dragon Within Us. Lecture, originally broadcast by TVO: available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REjUkEj1O_0


[177] As reviewed in Vrolix, K. (2006). “Behavioral adaptation, risk compensation, risk homeostasis and moral hazard in traffic safety.” Steunpunt Verkeersveiligheid, RA‑2006‑95. Retrieved from https://doclib.uhasselt.be/dspace/bitstream/1942/4002/1/behavioraladaptation.pdf


[178] Nietzsche, F.W. & Kaufmann, W.A. (1982). The portable Nietzsche . New York: Penguin Classics, pp. 211‑212.


[179] Orwell, G. (1958). The road to Wigan Pier . New York: Harcourt, pp. 96‑97.


[180] Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring . Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


[181] Names and other details have been changed for the sake of privacy.


[182] see http://reason.com/archives/2016/12/13/the‑most‑important‑graph‑in‑the‑world


[183] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/earthnews/9815862/Humans‑are‑plague‑on‑Earth‑Attenborough.html


[184] “The Earth has cancer, and the cancer is man.” Mesarović, M.D. & Pestel, E. (1974). Mankind at the turning point . New York: Dutton, p. 1. The idea was first proposed (and the quote taken from) Gregg, A. (1955). “A medical aspect of the population problem.” Science, 121 , 681‑682, p. 681 and further developed by Hern, W.M. (1993). “Has the human species become a cancer on the planet? A theoretical view of population growth as a sign of pathology.” Current World Leaders, 36 , 1089‑1124. From the Club of Rome’s King, A. & Schneider, B. (1991). The first global revolution . New York: Pantheon Books, p. 75: “The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill. All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome. The real enemy then, is humanity itself.”


[185] Costa, P. T., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). “Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 , 322–31; Weisberg, Y. J., DeYoung, C. G., & Hirsh, J. B. (2011). “Gender differences in personality across the ten aspects of the Big Five.” Frontiers in Psychology, 2 , 178; Schmitt, D. P., Realo, A., Voracek, M., & Allik, J. (2008). “Why can’t a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 , 168–182.


[186] De Bolle, M., De Fruyt, F., McCrae, R. R., et al. (2015). “The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross‑sectional, cross‑cultural study.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108 , 171–85.


[187] Su, R., Rounds, J., & Armstrong, P. I. (2009). “Men and things, women and people: A meta‑analysis of sex differences in interests.” Psychological Bulletin, 135 , 859–884. For a neuro‑developmental view of such differences, see Beltz, A. M., Swanson, J. L., & Berenbaum, S. A. (2011). “Gendered occupational interests: prenatal androgen effects on psychological orientation to things versus people.” Hormones and Behavior, 60 , 313–7.


[188] Bihagen, E. & Katz‑Gerro, T. (2000). “Culture consumption in Sweden: the stability of gender differences.” Poetics, 27 , 327‑3409; Costa, P., Terracciano, A. & McCrae, R.R. (2001). “Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8 , 322‑331; Schmitt, D., Realo. A., Voracek, M. & Alli, J. (2008). “Why can’t a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 , 168‑182; Lippa, R.A. (2010). “Sex differences in personality traits and gender‑related occupational preferences across 53 nations: Testing evolutionary and social‑environmental theories.” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39 , 619‑636.


[189] Gatto, J. N. (2000). The underground history of American education: A school teacher’s intimate investigation of the problem of modern schooling . New York: Odysseus Group.


[190] See Why are the majority of university students women ? Statistics Canada: Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81‑004‑x/2008001/article/10561‑eng.htm


[191] See, for example, Hango. D. (2015). “Gender differences in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and computer science (STEM) programs at university.” Statistics Canada , 75‑006‑X: Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/access_acces/alternative_alternatif.action?l=eng&loc=/pub/75‑006‑x/2013001/article/11874‑eng.pdf


[192] I’m not alone in this feeling. See, for example, Hymowitz, K.S. (2012). Manning up: How the rise of women has turned men into boys . New York: Basic Books.


[193] see http://www.pewresearch.org/fact‑tank/2012/04/26/young‑men‑and‑women‑differ‑on‑the‑importance‑of‑a‑successful‑marriage/


[194] see http://www.pewresearch.org/data‑trend/society‑and‑demographics/marriage/


[195] 37‑28/28 = 9/28 = 32 percent.


[196] 35‑29/35 = 6/35 = 17 percent.


[197] This has been discussed extensively in the mainstream press: see https://www.thestar.com/life/2011/02/25/women_lawyers_leaving_in_droves.html; http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/women‑criminal‑law‑1.3476637; http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/andrea‑lekushoff/female‑lawyers‑canada_b_5000415.html


[198] Jaffe, A., Chediak, G., Douglas, E., Tudor, M., Gordon, R.W., Ricca, L. & Robinson, S. (2016) “Retaining and advancing women in national law firms.” Stanford Law and Policy Lab, White Paper : Retrieved from https://www‑cdn.law.stanford.edu/wp‑content/uploads/2016/05/Women‑in‑Law‑White‑Paper‑FINAL‑May‑31‑2016.pdf


[199] Conroy‑Beam, D., Buss, D. M., Pham, M. N., & Shackelford, T. K. (2015). “How sexually dimorphic are human mate preferences?” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41 , 1082–1093. For a discussion of how female mate preference changes as a consequence of purely biological (ovulatory) factors, see Gildersleeve, K., Haselton, M. G., & Fales, M. R. (2014). “Do women’s mate preferences change across the ovulatory cycle? A meta‑analytic review.” Psychological Bulletin, 140 , 1205–1259.


[200] see Greenwood, J., Nezih, G., Kocharov, G & Santos, C. (2014).” Marry your like: Assortative mating and income inequality.” IZA discussion paper No. 7895 . Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10419/93282


[201] A good review of such dismal matters can be found in Suh, G.W., Fabricious, W.V., Parke, R.D., Cookston, J.T., Braver, S.L. & Saenz, D.S. “Effects of the interparental relationship on adolescents’ emotional security and adjustment: The important role of fathers.” Developmental Psychology, 52 , 1666‑1678.


[202] Hicks, S. R. C. (2011). Explaining postmodernism: Skepticism and socialism from Rousseau to Foucault . Santa Barbara, CA: Ockham’ Razor Multimedia Publishing. The pdf is available at http://www.stephenhicks.org/wp‑content/uploads/2017/10/Hicks‑EP‑Full.pdf


[203] Higgins, D.M., Peterson, J.B. & Pihl, R.O. “Prefrontal cognitive ability, intelligence, Big Five personality, and the prediction of advanced academic and workplace performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93 , 298‑319.


[204] Carson, S.H., Peterson, J.B. & Higgins, D.M. (2005). “Reliability, validity and factor structure of the Creative Achievement Questionnaire.” Creativity Research Journal, 17 , 37‑50.


[205] Bouchard, T.J. & McGue, M. (1981). “Familial studies of intelligence: a review.” Science, 212 , 1055‑1059; Brody, N. (1992). Intelligence . New York: Gulf Professional Publishing; Plomin R. & Petrill S.A. (1997). “Genetics and intelligence. What’s new?” Intelligence, 24 , 41–65.


[206] Schiff, M., Duyme, M., Dumaret, A., Stewart, J., Tomkiewicz, S. & Feingold, J. (1978). “Intellectual status of working‑class children adopted early into upper‑middle‑class families.” Science, 200 , 1503–1504; Capron, C. & Duyme, M. (1989). “Assessment of effects of socio‑economic status on IQ in a full cross‑fostering study.” Nature, 340 , 552–554.


[207] Kendler, K.S., Turkheimer, E., Ohlsson, H., Sundquist, J. & Sundquist, K. (2015). “Family environment and the malleability of cognitive ability: a Swedish national home‑reared and adopted‑away cosibling control study.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 112 , 4612‑4617.


[208] For the OECD’s take on this, see Closing the gender gap: Sweden , which starts by reviewing stats indicating that girls have an edge over boys with regards to education and that women are massively over‑represented in health care and then proceeds to decry the still extant advantage of men in computer science. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/sweden/Closing%20the%20Gender%20Gap%20‑%20Sweden%20FINAL.pdf


[209] Eron, L. D. (1980). “Prescription for reduction of aggression.” The American Psychologist, 35 , 244–252 (p. 251).


[210] Reviewed in Peterson, J.B. & Shane, M. (2004). “The functional neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of predatory and defensive aggression.” In J. McCord (Ed.). Beyond empiricism: Institutions and intentions in the study of crime . (Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 13) (pp. 107‑146). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Books; see also Peterson, J.B. & Flanders, J. (2005). “Play and the regulation of aggression.” In Tremblay, R.E., Hartup, W.H. & Archer, J. (Eds.). Developmental origins of aggression . (Chapter 12; pp. 133‑157). New York: Guilford Press.


[211] As reviewed in Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Séguin, J. R., et al. (2004). “Physical aggression during early childhood: trajectories and predictors.” Pediatrics, 114 , 43‑50.


[212] Heimberg, R. G., Montgomery, D., Madsen, C. H., & Heimberg, J. S. (1977). “Assertion training: A review of the literature.” Behavior Therapy, 8 , 953–971; Boisvert, J.‑M., Beaudry, M., & Bittar, J. (1985). “Assertiveness training and human communication processes.” Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 15 , 58–73.


[213] Trull, T. J., & Widiger, T. A. (2013). “Dimensional models of personality: The five‑factor model and the DSM‑5.” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15 , 135–46; Vickers, K.E., Peterson, J.B., Hornig, C.D., Pihl, R.O., Séguin, J. & Tremblay, R.E. (1996). “Fighting as a function of personality and neuropsychological measures.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 794 , 411‑412.


[214] Bachofen, J.J. (1861). Das Mutterrecht: Eine untersuchung über die gynaikokratie der alten welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen natur . Stuttgart: Verlag von Krais und Hoffmann.


[215] Gimbutas, M. (1991). The civilization of the goddess . San Francisco: Harper.


[216] Stone, M. (1978). When God was a woman . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.


[217] Eller, C. (2000). The myth of matriarchal prehistory: Why an invented past won’t give women a future. Beacon Press.


[218] Neumann, E. (1954). The origins and history of consciousness . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


[219] Neumann, E. (1955). The Great Mother: An analysis of the archetype . New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.


[220] See, for example, Adler, A. (2002). Theoretical part I‑III: The accentuated fiction as guiding idea in the neurosis. In H.T. Stein (Ed.). The collected works of Alfred Adler volume 1: The neurotic character: Fundamentals of individual psychology and psychotherary (pp. 41‑85) . Bellingham, WA: Alfred Adler Institute of Northern Washington, p. 71.


[221] Moffitt, T.E., Caspi,A., Rutter, M. & Silva, P.A. (2001). Sex differences in antisocial behavior: Conduct disorder, delinquency, and violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study . London: Cambridge University Press.


[222] Buunk, B.P., Dijkstra, P., Fetchenhauer, D. & Kenrick, D.T. (2002). “Age and gender differences in mate selection criteria for various involvement levels.” Personal Relationships, 9 , 271‑278.


[223] Lorenz, K. (1943). “Die angeborenen Formen moeglicher Erfahrung.” Ethology, 5 , 235‑409.


[224] Tajfel, H. (1970). “Experiments in intergroup discrimination.” Nature, 223 , 96‑102.


[225] Taken from Dostoevsky, F. (1995). The brothers Karamazov (dramatized by David Fishelson). Dramatists Play Service, Inc., pp. 54‑55. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2ifSkMn


[226] And it’s not the ability to microwave a burrito so hot that even He Himself could not eat it (as Homer asks, in Weekend at Burnsie’s (episode 16, season 13, The Simpsons ).


[227] Lao‑Tse (1984). The tao te ching . (1984) (S. Rosenthal, Trans.). Verse 11: The Utility of Non‑Existence. Retrieved from https://terebess.hu/english/tao/rosenthal.html#Kap11


[228] Dostoevsky, F. (1994). Notes from underground/White nights/The dream of a ridiculous man/The house of the dead (A.R. MacAndrew, Trans.). New York: New American Library, p. 114.


[229] Goethe, J.W. (1979). Faust, part two (P. Wayne, Trans.). London: Penguin Books. p. 270.


[230] Dikotter, F. Mao’s great famine . London: Bloomsbury.


[231] See Peterson, J.B. (2006). Peacemaking among higher‑order primates. In Fitzduff, M. & Stout, C.E. (Eds.). The psychology of resolving global conflicts: From war to peace. In Volume III, Interventions (pp. 33‑40) . New York: Praeger. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235336060_Peacemaking_among_higher‑order_primates


[232] See Allen, L. (2011). Trust versus mistrust (Erikson’s infant stages). In S. Goldstein & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.). Encyclopedia of child behavior and development (pp. 1509–1510). Boston, MA: Springer US.


[233] Lao‑Tse (1984). The tao te ching . (1984) (S. Rosenthal, Trans.). Verse 33: Without force: without perishing. Retrieved from https://terebess.hu/english/tao/rosenthal.html#Kap33


[234] Consider, for example, the great and courageous Boyan Slaat. This young Dutch man, still in his early twenties, has developed a technology that could do exactly that, and profitably, and be employed in all the oceans of the world. There’s a real environmentalist: See https://www.theoceancleanup.com/


[235] Yeats, W.B. (1933). Sailing to Byzantium. In R.J. Finneran (Ed.). The poems of W.B. Yeats: A new edition. New York: MacMillan, p. 163.


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